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Summary Human Infectious Diseases

- Human Infectious Diseases
- Gorben Pijlman
- 2019 - 2020
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
292 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Human Infectious Diseases

  • L1 + L2 Course overview and introduction to virology

  • Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV)
    FMDV is an extremely infectious picornavirus 

    zit bij de bek van beest en tussen de hoeven. 
  • Wat voor een voordelen heeft het voor een virus dat: the viral coat is built up by smaller subunits
    • Saving space on the genome
    • genetic stability (je hoeft maar een keer)
    • possibility to self-assembly (zelf in elkaar kunnen zetten zonder hulp van buitenaf (op temeratuur etc na))
    • structural requirement: assembly symmetric particle from asymmetric proteins
  • Viruses can be defined as the smallest genetic entities on the planet with the following three main properties:
    1. Infectivity. This is the ability to enter host cells, to multiply inside these cells, and to spread to other cells. 
    2. Ability to "survive" in an extracellular state
    3. Obligate, intracellular parasitism. This means a virus cannot multiply without entering a living host cell 
  • L3 +L4 Virus infection

  • Replication cycle of poliovirus (picornaviridae) het zijn 13 stappen
    1. Attachement to host receptors mediates endocytosis 
    2. capsid undergoes a conformational change to open a pore in the host endosomal membrane: viral RNA enters the cytoplasm
    3. VPg is removed from the viral RNA, which is then translated into a processed polyprotein 
    4. Replication via dsRNA occurs in viral factories made of membrane vesicles derived from the ER
    5. the dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated to produce mRNA and new ssRNA(+) genomes 
    6. new viral RNA is packaged into reassembled procapsids
    7. cell lysis and virus release 
  • L5+ L6 influenza virus inhuman and animals

  • Influenza A virus has a simple life cycle; wat wordt hiermee bedoeld
    Site of entry = respiratory epithelial cell 
    site of replication = respiratory epithelial cell 
    site of exit = respiratory epithelial cell 

    in vergelijking met Rabies virus 
    • site of entry: somatic motor neuron of skeletal muscle
    • site of replication: CNS neurons
    • site of exit: salivary gland epithelial cell
  • Waar bevinden zich de respiratory epithelial cells (6)
    beschikbaar in de hele luchtwegenbeschikbaar in de hele luchtwegen

    upper respiratory tract 
    • nasal cavity (neusholte)
    • pharynx (keelholte)
    • larynx (strottenhoofd)

    lower respiratory tract 
    • trachea (luchtpijp)
    • primary bronchi (primaire bronchiën)
    • lungs (longen)
  • Waar is de epithelial layer goed voor?
    Is belangrijk voor de vochtbarrière

    • ondoordringbaar door nauwe kruispunten
    • osmotische eiwitgradiënt
    • osmotische natriumgradiënt
  • Neutrophil activation
    [alveolar damage]
    1. Toxic damage door ROS (reactive oxygen species)
    2. Cytokine production 
    3. NET (neutrophil extracellular trap) formation
  • Macrophage activation
    [alveolar damage]
    1. Apoptosis
      • DR5 (death receptor 5 )
      • TRAIL (tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)
    2. cytokine production
    3. toxic damage door NO (nitric oxide)
  • L7 + L8 food-borne viruses and hepatitis E virus

  • Kenmerken/eigenschappen van Rotavirus
    • Fam. Reoviridae
    • dsRNA, 11 segments
    • inner + outer segments
    • around 70 nm
    • groups A-I
    • cel culture possible 
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