Summary: Humand And Animal Biology

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  • college 2 Phenotype

    This is a preview. There are 4 more flashcards available for chapter 08/04/2019
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  • what is the definition of phenotypic plasticity ?

    the ability if an organism to adapt its phenotype in reaction to the changing environment
  • what are 2 categories of phenotypic plasticity that are relevant for human and animal biology?

    -development plasticity: not reversible, no variation within individuals, no bound to season
    -phenotypic plasticity: reversible, variation within individual, no bound to season
  • what are 2 examples of phenotypic plasticity ?

    migrating birds and homing salmons
  • how does the Red Knot, a migrating bird, knows its time to leave?

    season, food supply
  • how does a Red Knot, a migrating bird, adapt to extreme conditions of long flights?

    heart is increased, digestive organs are decreased. Fat storage is lowered from 100 to 15/40 gram
    -sleep is unclear!
  • what is the difference between a warm and cold climate in the body by migrating birds?

    -warm: 30% reduced BMR, increased blood to the feet, fat redistributing, expanding feathers
    -cold: increased BMR and fat storage in skin for isolation
  • what are triggers for a bird to migrate?

    food, daytime, reproduction
  • The 'Bar headed goose (indische gans) flies at 5000-7000m with lower oxygen levels. How is this posible? name 5

    Bigger lungs, deep breathing, 30-40% more capillary network for the bigger heart and wing muscles, increased cardiac output/more efficient energy production, increased hemoglobin (binds oxygen)
  • Salmon are 'anadromous', what does this mean?

    (Gr. anadromos, run- ning upward); they spend their adult lives at sea but return to freshwater to spawn.
  • Salmons migrate from fresh water to sea water. To do this, they have to undergo 'smoltification'. What is Smoltification? How does the transition works?

    -preparation for migrating to sea water
    -brackish water -> osmotic adaptation, increased nacl
    -activation chemoreceptors, sends signals to the brain

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