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Summary IID

Course
- Immunology of Infectious Diseases
- .
- 2016 - 2017
- LSHTM
- Immunology
223 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - IID

  • 1 Innate immuntity

  • What are the components of innate immunity?
    1. Cells
    - Epithelial barriers – Defensins and cathelicidins (antibiotics)
    • Phagocytes and other cells – Macrophages – Neutrophils – Dendritic cells
    • Specialized lymphocytes with limited diversity (“innate lymphoid cells”) – NK cells, iNKT cells – B1 and Marginal Zone B cells
    2. Soluble components - Complement, pentraxins (CRP), collectins (MBL), cytokines/chemokines (e.g. TNF/IL-8)
  • 1.1 Phagocytosis

  • Which cells are capable of phagocytosis?
    Monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. 
    In special circumstances, eosinophils, B-cells and epithelial cells are also able to do phagocytosis
  • What are the stages of phagocytosis?
    1. Recognition
    2. Chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte
    3. Ingestion of microbe by phagocyte
    4. Formation of a phagosome
    5. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome ot form a phagolysosome
    6. Digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes
    7. Formation of residual body containing indigestible material
    8. Discharge of waste materials
  • 1.1.1 Pinocytosis

  • What is the function of pinocytosis?
    Bring in nutrients and aid cell osmoregulation
  • What is the mechanism of pinocytosis
    The internalisation of molecules by non-specific invagination of the plasma membrane dependent on external concentration
  • 1.3 Receptors

  • What are the ligands of TLR-2: TLR-6 heterodimer?
    - Lipomannans (mycobacteria)
    - Lipoproteins (diacyl lipopeptides; triacyl lipopeptides)
    - Lipoteichoic acids (gram-positive bacteria)
    - Cell-wall beta-glucans (bacteria and fungi)
    - Zymosan (fungi)
  • What are the ligands of TLR-3?
    Double-stranded RNA (viruses), poly I:C
  • What are the ligands of TLR-4 (plus MD-2 and CD14)?
    - LPS (Gram-negative bacteria)
    - Lipoteichoic acids (Gram-positive bacteria)
  • What is the ligand of TLR-9?
    DNA with unmethylated CpG (bacteria and herpesviruses)
  • What is the ligand of TLR-10?
    Unknown (human only)
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