A snapshot of the summary - Immunology and Disease
Mucosal immunity and diseases (Paul de Vos)
What is the role of adipocytokines?Adipocytokines are regulated by adipose tissue, important for regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis, PLUS it is also an immunoregulatory cytokine.
What is the immuno-endo function of adiponectin?Adiponectin regulates insulin sensitivity
High adiponectin --> extra calories are stored in adipose tissue
Low adiponectin --> extra calories are stored in dangerous places such as liver, heart and muscles. Organs most sensitive for insulin resistance and diabetes.
Note: Obese mice with high adinopectin never develop diabetes.
The gut is the largest
immunologicalorgan. How many of the lymphocytesdoes the gut contain and which immunoglobulinesare produced here?The gut contains 3/4 of all lymphocytes (of which 90% are CD8+ T cells),
and 90% of all immunoglobulines are produced here (5 gr
Themucosal immune system consists of two distinct compartments, the epithelium and lamina propria. Whichcompartment contains which immune cells? Epithilium: CD8+ T cell, dendritic cells Laminapropria: CD4+ T cell, dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells
Describe the unique collaberation between epithelial cells and dendritic cells in Peyer's patches when encountered by an antigen.1) M cells take up antigen by endocytosis and phagocytosis.
2) The antigen is then transported across the M cells in vesicles and released at the basal surface.
3) The antigen is then bound by dendritic cells, which activate T cells.
Which cytokines released from the dendritic cell, makes the T cell express IFN-y and IL-17?IL-6 and TGF-B
In what two ways can dendritic cells capture antigens from the lumen?- Dendritic cells can extend processes across the epithelial layer to capture antigen from the lumen of the gut
- Antigens can cross the epithelial layer.
Intraepithelial T-cells are always activated and ready to kill. Describe the process of how IELs get activated by a virus infecting a mucosal epithelium cell.1) The virus infects a mucosal epithelium cell.
2) Infected cell displays viral peptide to CD8 IEL via MHC class 1
3) Activated IEL kills the infected epithelial cell by perforin/granzyme and Fas-dependent pathways.
Intraepithelial T cells are always activated and ready to kill. Describe the process of how IELs get activated as a result of infection, damage, toxic peptides.1) Epithelial cells undergo stress as a result of infection, damage, or toxic peptides and as a result express MIC-A and MIC-B.
2) NKG2D on IELS bind to MIC-A,B and activate the IEL. CD8a:a homodimers bind to TL.
3) Activated IEL kills the stressed cell via the perforin/granzyme pathway.
What is the effect of disorders in intraepithelial T-cells?A disorder in IELs cause fast spread of pathogens in the epithelium (Listeria)
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