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Summary Immunology and Disease

Course
- Immunology and Disease
- Peter Heeringa
- 2019 - 2020
- Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen locatie Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden)
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
175 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Immunology and Disease

  • Mucosal immunity and diseases (Paul de Vos)

  • What is the role of adipocytokines?
    Adipocytokines are regulated by adipose tissue, important for regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis, PLUS it is also an immunoregulatory cytokine.
  • What is the immuno-endo function of adiponectin?
    Adiponectin regulates insulin sensitivity

    High adiponectin --> extra calories are stored in adipose tissue

    Low adiponectin --> extra calories are stored in dangerous places such as liver, heart and muscles. Organs most sensitive for insulin resistance and diabetes. 

    Note: Obese mice with high adinopectin never develop diabetes.
  • The gut is the largest immunological organ. How many of the lymphocytes does the gut contain and which immunoglobulines are produced here?
    The gut contains 3/4 of all lymphocytes (of which 90% are CD8+ T cells),
    and 90% of all immunoglobulines are produced here (5 gr IgA per day)
  • The mucosal immune system consists of two distinct compartments, the epithelium and lamina propria. Which compartment contains which immune cells?
    Epithilium: CD8+ T cell, dendritic cells

    Lamina propria: CD4+ T cell, dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells
  • Describe the unique collaberation between epithelial cells and dendritic cells in Peyer's patches when encountered by an antigen.
    1) M cells take up antigen by endocytosis and phagocytosis.

    2) The antigen is then transported across the M cells in vesicles and released at the basal surface.  

    3) The antigen is then bound by dendritic cells, which activate T cells.
  • Which cytokines released from the dendritic cell, makes the T cell express IFN-y and IL-17?
    IL-6 and TGF-B
  • In what two ways can dendritic cells capture antigens from the lumen?
    - Dendritic cells can extend processes across the epithelial layer to capture antigen from the lumen of the gut
    - Antigens can cross the epithelial layer.
  • Intraepithelial T-cells are always activated and ready to kill. Describe the process of how IELs get activated by a virus infecting a mucosal epithelium cell.
    1) The virus infects a mucosal epithelium cell.

    2) Infected cell displays viral peptide to CD8 IEL via MHC class 1

    3) Activated IEL kills the infected epithelial cell by perforin/granzyme and Fas-dependent pathways.     
  • Intraepithelial T cells are always activated and ready to kill. Describe the process of how IELs get activated as a result of infection, damage, toxic peptides.
    1) Epithelial cells undergo stress as a result of infection, damage, or toxic peptides and as a result express MIC-A and MIC-B

    2) NKG2D on IELS bind to MIC-A,B and activate the IEL. CD8a:a homodimers bind to TL.

    3) Activated IEL kills the stressed cell via the perforin/granzyme pathway.
  • What is the effect of disorders in intraepithelial T-cells?
    A disorder in IELs cause fast spread of pathogens in the epithelium (Listeria)
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