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Summary Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie

Course
- Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie
- dr. M. van den Tooren
- 2015 - 2016
- Tilburg University (Tilburg University, Tilburg)
- Psychologie
228 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Inleiding Psychologie en Maatschappij: Arbeids- en Organisatiepsychologie

  • Chapter 1: introduction

  • What is W&O Psychology?
    The study of people and their behaviour at work, and of the organizations in which people work; Work Psychologists develop psychological theory and apply the rigour and methods of psychology to issues that are important to businesses and organizations, in order to promote and advance understanding of individual, group and organizational effectiveness at work, and the wel-being and satisfaction of people working in or served by organizations.
  • C. S. Myers
    Perhaps the first consultant Work Psychologist, working with the British Expeditionary Force during WW1 on the treatment of shell shock.
  • The British Psychological Society Division of Occupational Psychology (DOP)
    Formed to represent the interests of Work Psychologists in the UK, but has never marched the political influence and impact that the NIIP achieved between 1920 and 1940.
  • Two critical relationships in the moral considerations of business:
    1. The relationship between government and business
    2. The relationship between business and the rest of society
  • Three pertinent areas that frame the societal responsibilities of business (Carroll, 1999)
    - Econonomic: to operate profitably and efficiently, returning value to shareholders
    - Legal: to conform to all aspects of the law, avoiding harmful litigation
    - Ethical: to act in accordance with societal and business moral norms, to promote the overall welfare of society and to avoid doing harm

    Lefkowitz (2008) calls for a change in the values of Work Psychology to ecompass the ideas about how organizations 'ought' to be, according to ideas of CSR. Lefkowitz believes that this would give Work Psychology the broader values of societal responsibilty that a true profession needs.
  • To vigilant areas where Work and Organizational Psychology could indirectly contribute to irresponsible management (Lefkowitz, 2008)
    1. Pro-management bias
    2. Focus on means and not ends

    1. Management can be quite precise in what they require from Work Psychologists, which can lead to a bias for management needs and goals, rather than for employees that may lead to questionable actions, such as assisting management in organizational changes such as downsizing, without questioning the economic justifications.

    2. Work Psychologists rightly tend to take seriously the methods and practices of their work with organizations. However, the consequence is that they may lower their gaze from the long-term ends and outcomes for individuals, organizations and society.
  • Sustainable development is also often represented as a Venn diagram with three interlocking circles. It includes attention to sustainable growth in three areas:
    1. Economic: developing economies in ways that do not threaten long-term economic wealth
    2. Social: focusing on development that addresses global social issues such as poverty, hunger or inequality
    3. Environmental: developing in ways that allow less environmental resources to be consumed than those that can naturally be replenished
  • Chapter 5: Motivation at work

  • Five perspectives of work motivation
    1. To satisfy needs
    2. By personal traits
    3. In response to cognition of their work environment (i.e. the way people think about their work)
    4. When they feel fairly treated at work
    5. By characteristics of their jobs
  • Two definitions of motivation
    1. 'a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual's being to initiate work-related behaviour and to determine its form, direction, intensity and duration'
    2. 'the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal'
  • Herzberg's two-factor theory
    Also termed as motivation-hygiene theory, reveales a distinction between factors that cause dissatisfaction and those that promote satisfaction. He termed these as hygiene factors and motivators respectively, although they have also been termed extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.

    - Hygiene factors: include things like pay, quality of supervision, work conditions etc. When these do not meet expectations of employees, they tend to result in dissatisfaction and demotivation

    - Motivators: are factors that tap into internal needs. These include achievement, advancement and promotion etc.
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