Summary: International Brand Management

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  • 4 Artikel 4 - John et al. (2006): Brand Concept Maps: A Methodology for Identifying Brand Association Networks

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  • What is offered in the article by John et al. (2006) and what is the purpose?

    This article offes a new consumer mapping approach, called Brand Concept Maps (BCM), to answer the need for a more accessible and standardized method for producing brand maps
  • What should firms ideally be able to measure to obtain a brand map?

    Firms should be able to measure the network of brand associations consumers have to obtain a brand map
  • What are the three advantages of association networks?

    1. Constitutes a brand’s image
    2. Identifies the brand’s uniqueness and value to consumers
    3. Suggests ways that the brand’s equity can be leveraged in the marketplace
  • What identifies and conveys a brand map?

    • It identifies important brand associations
    • It conveys how these associations are connected to the brand and to one another
  • Which three things does a brand map show? Explain with the brand map of McDonalds's as example

    The brand map:
    • Pinpoints several associations that are connected directly to brand 
      • Service & Value
    • Shows how other associations are connected to these close brand associations (indirectly)
      • Hassle-free, convenient & fast are connected to service
    • Shows additional linkages between associations (grouped together)
  • What are the two promising categories of techniques that differ in the way they derive brand maps?

    1. Consumer mapping: Elicits brand maps directly from consumers
      • Brand associations are elicited from consumers, who are then asked to construct networks of these associations as links to the brand and to anotherAnalytical mapping:
    2. Produces brand maps using analytical methods
      • Brand associations are elicited from consumers, but analytical methods are used to uncover the network analysis, which uses consumer perceptions about brands and derives the structure of brand associations through network algorithms
  • What are the three advantages of Brand Conept Maps (BCM's) compard to existing methods for producing brand maps?

    • The approach is easier to administer than existing consumer mapping techniques
    • It does not require specially trained interviewers and large time commitments from respondents
    • It offfers a flexible approach that is capable of being used in many research settings, even with large sample sizes that cover diverse market segments
  • What are the 3 stages in consumer mapping techniques?

    1. Elicitation stage 
      • Important brand associations are elicited from consumers
    2. Mapping stage
      • Consumers map these elicited associations to show how they are connected to one another and to the brand
    3. Aggregation stage
      • Researchers aggregate these individual brand maps and associated data to produce a consensus brand map
  • What is the most well-known consumer mapping technique and for what is it designed and can it be used?

    ZMETZaltman’s Metaphor Elicitation Technique
    • It is designed to surface the mental models that drive consumer thinking and behaviour
    • It can be used for understanding consumers' thoughts about brands and product categories
  • What are the main advantages and disadvantages of Zaltman's Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)?

    • Thoroughness of the procedures for eliciting brand associations: it uses multiple qualitative research techniques to tap verbal and nonverbal aspects of consumer thinking
    • Reliability and validity seem promising

    • Accessibility to practitioners is limited because the procedures are not standardized and involve expert judgments
    • Technique is difficult to administer and the process is labour intensive.
    • Requirements limit the flexibility of using ZMET

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