A snapshot of the summary - International Public Health
Health determinants, measurements and trends
What are, besides the individual (genetics, sex, age), determinants of health?
- Physical environment (water, sanitation, air pollution)
- Employment and working conditions
- Access to health services
- Healthy behaviors and coping skills
- Healthy child development
- Social environment (socio-economic status, education, social capital, culture, gender norms)
Give an example of equity and equality in health care.Everyone can go to the GP 5 times a year = equality
Everyone can go to the GP as often as they need = equity
What is meant with the incidence rate and prevalence, what type of indicator of health status is it?Incidence rate is the amount of new cases of a disease. Prevalence is the total amount of people with the disease.
These are indicators of the frequency of disease.
What is meant with the mortality, case-fatality, and morbidity, what type of indicator of health status is it?Mortality is the number of deaths. Case-fatality is the number of deaths because of a certain disease. Morbidity is the disability caused by a disease.
These are indicators of the severity of disease.
What is the difference between mortality and case-fatality?Mortality is a measure for deaths in the whole population, case-fatality is the mortality of the population with a certain disease.
What are general trends that influence the global health status?
- Population growth
- Ageing of the population
- Urbanization (water, sanitation, schools)
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
What are the three main causes of death according to the WHO?I - Communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions
II - Non-communicable conditions (NCDs)
III - Injuries
What are the characteristics of NCDs?
- Long latency
- Emerge in middle-age and later life
- High degree of preventability
- Long period of treatment and care
- Strong link to socio-economic development
What is a trend linked to obesity?In high income countries the people with a middle- and low socio-economic status are more likely to get obese as the fast food restaurants are cheap.
In low- and middle income countries the 'rich' people get obese.
What is a trend in tobacco use and an unhealthy diet?Media exposure of tobacco and unhealthy food is paid by the tobacco industry and food industry.
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