Summary: Introduction To Business

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  • Technology & Innovation, bridging science, business and society

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  • What happens in the niche level (micro level)?

    • New ideas for innovations are developed by researchers and technologists
    • Concept is invented: object gets a purpose
  • What is the definition of a product concept?

    The understanding of the product in order to showcase the best qualities of the product, including

    • What problem can be solved, for what user, in what situation, compared to existing products
    • Costs and benefits company
    • Implications for marketing, after sale etc.
    • Scientific-technological characteristics
    • Data on functionality, safety, side effects, sustainability
  • What is the goal of the R&D department in a company?

    Undertakes activities to develop new or improved products (innovation)
  • What does the technology readiness levels (TRL) estimate?

    The maturity of a technology in development
  • What is an example in how technology is a societal power in communication?

    Phone and internet determine our communication
  • When is an innovation in a lock-in situation?

    Technologies are connected to
    • Rules
    • Societal parties
    • Intrastructures (railway, cars, electricity, gas)
    and lose flexibility -> changes are difficult
  • Technology doesn't always push and change, give 4 reasons

    Conservatism
    1. Technology itself is conservative (lock in)
    2. Scientists/technologists are skeptical
    3. Companies are skeptical
    4. Government is skeptical
  • What kind of resistance towards innovations comes from companies?

    • Incompability: structure/culture of company is not aligned
    • Lack of experience
    • Expensive (R&D)
  • What are easier ways for companies to innovate?

    • Imitation
    • Buying start-ups
    • Joint-ventures (senseo)
  • Give the 6 steps of the market pull system

    1. Societal demand
    2. Market research
    3. Technological research (/ fundamental research)
    4. Product development
    5. Market introduction
    6. Societal use

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