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Summary Introduction To Neuroscience

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- introduction to neuroscience
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A snapshot of the summary - introduction to neuroscience

  • 1 college 1

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  • What three staining techniques are used to identify different parts of the brain?
    • No staining; identify brain areas
    • Nissl staining; identify individual cells
    • Tyrosine Hydroxylase; identify dopamine concentrations.
  • Why do you study rat brains in comparison to humans?
    • Rats are mammals so their brains are physically still comparable to humans (but less than monkey brains)
    • ethical boundaries for rats are lower than for humans, therefor techniques can be used which can't be used on humans.
  • How can you know the connectivity of the nucleus accumbens, and what is it's primary function?
    • It's primary function is motivation.
    • by injecting the nucleus accumbens with a retrograde injection, you can see the connectivity by looking where your injected substance ends up.
      • the injected substance can travel through neurons in opposite direction from where information comes from
      • so nucleus accumbens receives information from the stained locations in other brain regions.
  • 2 college 2

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  • What division and subdivisions can be made in the organization of the human nervous system?
    • Nervous system; consists of
      • central nervous system; every nerve that is protected by either skull or spines
        • Cerebrum
        • Cerebellum
        • Brainstem
        • Spinal cord
      • peripheral nervous system; everything else
        • Cranial nerves; nerves in the face
        • Spinal nerves; nerves in the body
        • Autonomic NS
  • Of which parts does the spinal cord consist?
    From top to bottom;
    • cervical cord
    • thoracic cord
    • lumbar cord
    • sacral cord 
  • The spinal cord connects the brain to the rest of the body, what are the two longest tracts?
    • long fiber tracts 1 which is a descending motor pathway connects the motor cortex to the muscles in the body
      • consists of the corticospinal/pyramidal tract; a collection of axons that carry movement-related information from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord.
        • these fibers cross over near the brain stem (higher level)
    • long fiber tracts 2 which is an ascending sensory pathway
      • consists of the spinothalamic tract; sensory pathway from the body to the somatosensory cortex via the thalamus
        • these fibers cross over where they enter the spinal cord.
  • Describe the organization of the peripheral nervous system.
    • The cranial nerves are 12 nerves from brain which mostly innervate the head and neck.
      • these neurons can be sensory, motor, or mixed neurons
      • the Vagus nerve forms part of the parasympathetic system
    • the spinal nerves; are all the nerves who lie outside the spinal cord
      • they innervate skin, joints, and muscles
      • dorsal root ganglia are bundles of fibers which contain cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons
    • autonomic nervous system (visceral nervous system)
      • can be divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
      • Innervates smooth muscle (muscle that aren't skeletal muscles, internal muscles) of internal organs, blood vessels, glands
  • What is the functional difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    • The sympathetic nervous system causes activation which facilitates a fight or flight response; active state
    • the parasympathetic nervous systems causes activation which facilitates a rest or digest response; causes a passive state
  • Describe the formation of the neural tube.
    • Embryo begins as a flat disk with 3 distinct layers
      • Endoderm eventually forms internal organs
      • Mesoderm eventually forms bones and muscles
      • Ectoderm eventually forms nervous system and skin
    • Neurulation is the formation of the neural plate which turns into the neural groove which turns into the neural tube on dorsal aspect of embryo
    • The entire CNS forms from the walls of this fluid-filled tube
    • The tube ultimately becomes the ventricular system
  • How does part of the neural tube eventually develop into the brain?
    • The upper part of the neural tube eventually develops into three parts:
      • the prosencephalon oor the forebrain
      • the mesencephalon or midbrain
      • rhombencephalon or hindbrain
    • the rest of the neural tube will develop into the spinal cord.

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