Summary Introduction to nutrition and metabolism Book cover image

Summary Introduction to nutrition and metabolism

- David A Bender
ISBN-10 1420043129 ISBN-13 9781420043129
144 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Introduction to nutrition and metabolism Author: David A Bender ISBN: 9781420043129

  • 1 Why eat?

  • 1.2 Metabolic fuels

  • What are the dietary sources of metabolic energy (fuels)?

    Carbohydrates, fats, protein and alcohol.

  • 1.2.2 The need for protein

  • What causes the continual loss of protein from the body? (At least two)

    1. Hair

    2. Shed skin cells

    3. Enzymes

    4. Other protein secreted from the gut

  • 1.3.1 Hunger and satiety-short term control of feeding

  • What part of the brain stimulates us to eat and stop eating?

    Hunger: Lateral hypothalmus through neurons that uses neuropeptide Y as transmitter.

    Satiety: Ventro-medial hypothalamus through neurons that use pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)

  • 1.3.2 Long term control of food intake and energy expenditure

  • How does leptin act to increase energy expenditure and loss of adipose tissue?

    1. Increased expression of uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue and muscle;

    resulting in relatively uncontrolled oxidaion of metabolic fuel.

    2. Increased activity of lipase in adipose tissue;

    resulting in a breakdown of triacylglycerol reserves and release of nonesterified fatty acids, which are either oxidized or re esterified in liver/transpored to adipose tissue; costing energy.

    3. Decreased expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase in adipose tissue;

    decreasing both syntheses and increased oxidation of fatty acids.

    4. Increased apoptose in adipose tissue;

    reducing availability storing fat.

  • 1.3.3 Appetite

  • What are the five basic tastes the tongue can distinguish?

    1. Salt

    2. Savory

    3. Sweet

    4. bitter

    5. Sour

     

    NB: Also the ability to taste fat.

  • When do we response in sensitivity for salt (sodium)?

    In a response to the state of sodium balance in the body, the active salt receptors will increase at times of sodium depletion.

  • Why is the taste of savoriness important to us?

    Largely due to the presence of free amino acids in food and permits detection of protein-rich foods

  • What can we detect with the taste of sweetness?

    Carbohydrates (energy sources)

  • Why are sourness and bitterness an unpleasant sensation?

    Because many toxins occur in food that have a bitter and sour flavor.

  • 2 Enzymes and metabolic pathways

  • On what do all metabolic processes depend?

    Reactions between molecules, with breaking covelant bonds, forming others and yielding compounds from starting material.

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