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A snapshot of the summary - Introduction to Organic Chemistry
1 Covalent Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
1.1 How do we Describe the Electronic Structures of Atoms?
What are the principle energy levels?The principle energy levels are the space to which an electron in confined to move within.
How are electrons further grouped?1. The principle energy levels or Shells.
2. The subshells s, p, d and f.
3. Orbitals, each containing a maximum of 2 electrons
How are the orbitals distributed within the shells?1. 1 s orbital in each shell
2. 3 p orbitals in each shell, except the first shell
3. 5 d orbitals in each shell, except the first two shells
4. 7 f orbitals in each shell, except the first three shells
What are the first 10 elements of the periodic table?Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Berylium, Boor, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluor, Neon
What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 8? And what is the electron configuration?Oxygen, 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1
What is a lewis structure?A representation of an electron with it's valence electrons drawn.
1.2 What is the Lewis Model of Bonding?
How is an ionic bond formed?An ionic bond is formed when an electron transfers from the valence shell of an atom with lower electronegativity to one with higher electronegativity.
When does ionic transfer of electrons occur?The guideline is when the difference in electronegativity is 1,9 or greater.
What is a dipole and how can you display this?A dipole is when there is a seperation of charge within a covalent bond or molecule. This can be displayed in a electron density model, with blue showing the more negative part and red the more positive part.
What is the formal charge and how to derive it?The formal charge is the charge on an atom or molecule and can be derived by:
1. Writing down the Lewis structure.
2. Assign al unshared electrons.
3. Compare the number of electrons with the number of electrons in the neutral, unbonded atom.