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Summary Introduction to Organic Chemistry

- William H Brown, et al
528 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Introduction to Organic Chemistry Author: William H Brown Thomas Poon

  • 1 Covalent Bonding and Shapes of Molecules

  • 1.1 How do we Describe the Electronic Structures of Atoms?

  • What are the principle energy levels?
    The principle energy levels are the space to which an electron in confined to move within.
  • How are electrons further grouped?
    1. The principle energy levels or Shells.
    2. The subshells s, p, d and f.
    3. Orbitals, each containing a maximum of 2 electrons
  • How are the orbitals distributed within the shells?
    1. 1 s orbital in each shell
    2. 3 p orbitals in each shell, except the first shell
    3. 5 d orbitals in each shell, except the first two shells
    4. 7 f orbitals in each shell, except the first three shells
  • What are the first 10 elements of the periodic table?
    Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Berylium, Boor, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluor, Neon
  • What is the element of the periodic table with atomic number 8? And what is the electron configuration?
    Oxygen, 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1
  • What is a lewis structure?
    A representation of an electron with it's valence electrons drawn.
  • 1.2 What is the Lewis Model of Bonding?

  • How is an ionic bond formed?
    An ionic bond is formed when an electron transfers from the valence shell of an atom with lower electronegativity to one with higher electronegativity.
  • When does ionic transfer of electrons occur?
    The guideline is when the difference in electronegativity is 1,9 or greater.
  • What is a dipole and how can you display this?
    A dipole is when there is a seperation of charge within a covalent bond or molecule. This can be displayed in a electron density model, with blue showing the more negative part and red the more positive part.
  • What is the formal charge and how to derive it?
    The formal charge is the charge on an atom or molecule and can be derived by:
    1. Writing down the Lewis structure.
    2. Assign al unshared electrons.
    3. Compare the number of electrons with the number of electrons in the neutral, unbonded atom.
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