Aldehydes and Ketones - How Are Aldehydes and Ketones Reduced?

6 important questions on Aldehydes and Ketones - How Are Aldehydes and Ketones Reduced?

Under what circumstances are catalytic redutions of aldehydes and ketones usually carried out?

With a transition metal like platinum, nickel or rhodium at temperatures between 25oC and 100oC and a pressure between 1 and 5 atm.

What is a disadvantage of catalytic reduction of aldehydes and ketones?

Other functional groups will also be reduced.

What is a hydride ion?

A hydrogen atom with two electrons in its valence shell.

What is the key step in the reduction of an aldehyde or a ketone through metal hydride reduction?

The key step is the transfer of a hydride ion from the reducing agent to the carbonyl carbon to form a tertahedral carbonyl addition intermediate.

Why is sodium borohydrite mostly used as reducing agent?

Because sodium borohydrite is a very selective reducing agent.

How can a carbon-carbon double bond be reduced while keeping the carbonyl group intact?

By first protecting the carbonyl group using an acetal.

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