4 good questions and answers about "Policy implementation"

More often than not, policy implementation takes place within ‘implementation networks’. Why is this the case?
The implementation of policy demands cooperation of multiple actors that all have access to specific resources themselves (power, money, knowledge).The policy carrier, implementing organisations, target groups and their representatives play a role in this process. ‘Co-production’ is necessary. The actors are mutually dependent on one another.
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What kind of networks can develop in practice (elaborate)?
Networks with one-sided associations (actor b exclusively requires resource M from actor a) and net words with multi-sided competitively (desire for the same goal, in which mutual dependency and competition are scarce resources) and sequential associations (activities of actors are sequential)
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During the lecture on implementation, Coolsma stated that this phase is characterised by delays. Elaborate on two causes of this problem.
A new policy causes existing organisations to have to adapt. Hereby referring to existing power-relationships, habits, cultures, thought-patterns, cooperative deals and the budget requiring adaptation. Individuals will tend to stand up against new tasks, hereby trying to change adaptations in their favour, to avoid tasks or to delay them. You have to mention two of these causes. 
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More often than not, implementers are allowed discretion within their task.
What is meant by this?
An implementer has discretion if his factual limits provide him with the option to make a choice between possible alternatives.
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