4 good questions and answers about "The emergence of governments"

Describe the emergence of the regulation state
In order to prevent the depletion of common pool resources, which are freely available and can be used by anyone without limitation for his/her own needs, citizens will accept rules and regulations, as well as taxing that limit these resources.
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Describe the emergence of the welfare state
Because the free market is prone to winners and losers (i.e. welfare is not evenly distributed) it results in income-inequality. This results in inequalities in terms of health and safety, and possible instability of the community. Hence, a call for social fundamental rights occurs, as well as monetary redistribution in favour of the poorest (social security) and education for all
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What are collective goods and why has the production of these goods become government task, primarily? Provide a concrete example of such a good
A collective good is a non-exclusive, non-rivalrous good. Individuals cannot be excluded from usage and one person’s use does not impair another’s. Because the market cannot produce these goods (the price cannot be decided upon and financial gain is impossible), these have become governmental tasks. Examples thereof are the military, clean air, protection against the sea, and protection of health
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In what way could you describe the creation of a movement, focused on ‘new public management’, which the government actually wants to push back and desires for this to be organised as an organisation? Also, provide three examples of changes within the organisation and the manner in which government works, based on your examples.

(how to reduce government's involvement)
Thanks to greater empowerment, more and more groups can realise their needs. The costs of a welfare state are gargantuan and governmental policies frequently do not succeed. The state is not efficient and has to reduce its interaction with the citizens. By including more competition, outsourcing, public-private cooperation, and other activities, the government’s involvement can be reduced.
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