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A snapshot of the summary - Introduction to Policy
Science based policy
What are the criteria for scientific knowledge in the advisory context?
- Credible (adequate, reliable)
- Salient (useful for practice and policy)
- Legitimate (acceptable for involved parties)
Why are there tensions between society and science?
- Science want universalism, scientific peers and unambiguity
- Policy asks for localism, reviewing by non-scientists and vagueness to bind knowledge, actors and values
On what factors depends the contribution of scientists?
- Time - context
- Nature problem: complexity, uncertainties
What is the definition of a policy?The pursuit of achieving certain goals with certain means at certain points of time. Always meant to be the solution to a collective problem
Describe the policy cycleThe course of events around a policy
- Agenda-setting (warning science: flu is danger, action needed!)
- Agenda-policy (advice: develop science (vaccine))
- Preparation (develop scenario's)
- Decision-making (advice for decision: everyone 2x vaccine)
- Implementation (new knowledge: not everyone, only target groups)
- Evaluation (did it work? too much vaccine?)
What are the different roles that science can play in policy?
- Separation science-policy (ivory tower)
- Dominance by science (science push)
- Dominance by policy (policy demand)
What is the solution to high societal consensus and high science certainty?Science delivers information and solutions (road improvement)
What is the role of scientists to a high societal consensus but low level of scientific certainty?Science conduct research, may choose their own solutions, may try to convince societal parties and governments (air quality health)
What is the role of scientists if there is a low level of societal consensus but a high level of certainty in science?
- Scientist deliver consensus creating solutions (pacification)
- New concepts
- Inventarise of all possibilities and writing scenarios
What is the role of scientists when the societal consensus and the level of scientific certainty is low?Science is a participant in the debate (climate change)