Summary: Introduction To Policy

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  • Science based policy

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  • What are the criteria for scientific knowledge in the advisory context?

    • Credible (adequate, reliable)
    • Salient (useful for practice and policy)
    • Legitimate (acceptable for involved parties)
  • Why are there tensions between society and science?

    • Science want universalism, scientific peers and unambiguity
    • Policy asks for localism, reviewing by non-scientists and vagueness to bind knowledge, actors and values
  • On what factors depends the contribution of scientists?

    • Time - context
    • Role/position
    • Nature problem: complexity, uncertainties
  • What is the definition of a policy?

    The pursuit of achieving certain goals with certain means at certain points of time. Always meant to be the solution to a collective problem
  • Describe the policy cycle

    The course of events around a policy
    1. Agenda-setting (warning science: flu is danger, action needed!)
    2. Agenda-policy (advice: develop science (vaccine))
    3. Preparation (develop scenario's)
    4. Decision-making (advice for decision: everyone 2x vaccine)
    5. Implementation (new knowledge: not everyone, only target groups)
    6. Evaluation (did it work? too much vaccine?)
  • What are the different roles that science can play in policy?

    • Separation science-policy (ivory tower)
    • Dominance by science (science push)
    • Dominance by policy (policy demand)
    • Interaction
  • What is the solution to high societal consensus and high science certainty?

    Science delivers information and solutions (road improvement)
  • What is the role of scientists to a high societal consensus but low level of scientific certainty?

    Science conduct research, may choose their own solutions, may try to convince societal parties and governments (air quality health)
  • What is the role of scientists if there is a low level of societal consensus but a high level of certainty in science?

    • Scientist deliver consensus creating solutions (pacification)
    • New concepts 
    • Inventarise of all possibilities and writing scenarios


    (Euthenasia)
  • What is the role of scientists when the societal consensus and the level of scientific certainty is low?

    Science is a participant in the debate (climate change)

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