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Summary Klinische I&I

Course
- Klinische I&I
- Knol, Denzer
- 2018 - 2019
- Universiteit Utrecht
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
329 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Klinische I&I

  • Refresh your Immunological Memory

  • What are the characteristics of the immune system?
    Adaptive, memory, specific (self-/non-self recognition), diversity (antigen recognition), acquired (education of lymf), systemic.
  • The innate immune systeme reacts first - What is the role of the phagocytic barrier? Which cells form this barrier?
    Phagocytes break down pathogens (removing and destroying) and present the peptides on their own MHC molecules (getting activated and signalling). 

    Phagocytic cells are: macrophages, monocytes, neutrophiles (granulocytes), and dendritic cells (in tissue).
  • How can neutrophiles manage phagosomal killing? More options
    Lysosomal proteases: killing and digestion
    Lactoferrine: Fe downgrade; Fe is essential for bacteria.
    Reactive oxygen
    Lysozyme: breakdown of cell walls.
    Defensine: Pore formation  

    Nets; Neutrophil extracellular traps; release of DNA and capture of the microorganism.
  • How do phagocytes recognize pathogens?
    Due to PAMP-PRR interaction. Different PRRs (often Toll like receptor) can recognize specific groups of pathogens.
  • What are the most important functions of the inflammatory barrier?
    Attracting immune cells and the complement system (local) and production of cytokines (systemic).
  • How do neutrofiles migrate trough the layer of endothelial cells and what is their function?
    The blood flow changes and endothelial cells are activated after injury. This causes influx of neutrofiles.; fagocytosis and formation of "pus".
  • Why is clotting important in the inflammatory respons?
    For producing networks to "capture" the pathogen; isolating injury site.
  • Why is the complement system important in the inflammatory respons?
    The complement system is able to:

    • Activate/attract phagocytes (killing bacteria)
    • Lysis target cell
    • Opsonization (marking bacteria)
    • Clearance immune complex (co-working with antibodies)
  • What is the strenght of the complement system?
    Immediate reaction, high quantity, tightly regulated, killing and "call for help" by chemokines (double action), working together with adaptive system.
  • Explain how the innate and adaptive immune systeme interact (direct and indirect)
    • Direct: via Fc-receptor (antigen bound antibody binds macrophage).
    • Indirect: via complement receptor (antigen bound antibody binds complement).
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