Polysaccharides - Various food gums

7 important questions on Polysaccharides - Various food gums

What are properties of xyloglucan?

  • Highly stable to heat, pH and shear
  • Close to Newtonian flow behaviour --> viscosity depends on concentration

What are the applications of xyloglucan?

  • Thickeners for sauce, ice cream, dressing and fruit beverages
  • Jellies
  • Noodles (prevent starch ageing), has sticky gel texture appreciated in Asian kitchen

What is a property of gum arabic?

  • It contains 3% hydrophobic polypeptide (protein) with a bulk of arabinogalactan --> highly functional. Also rhamnose and glucuronic acid. Last one adds up to charge of polymer, increasing solubility.
  • Solutions up to 50% w/w are still low in viscosity so used in confectionery.

What are the applications of gum arabic?

  • Confectionery (winegums, marshmallows, toffees)
  • Stabiliser of e.g. Citrus and cola flavour concentrates --> protein part may stabilise the oil droplet
  • Flavour encapsulation

What are the applications of cellulose?

  • Bulking agent (filling agent, dietary fiber) --> highly insoluble
  • Derivatives that have changed functionality: solubility, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and charge
  • Physically modified cellulose
    • Micro fibrillated: holds water, pseudoplastic
    • Microcrystalline: pseudoplastic
  • Sauces, baked goods, whipped toppings, reduced-fat foods

What are the 2 different types of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), how are they made and what are the applications?

  • Freeze-drying --> Freeze dried powder of porous aggregates --> used as flavour carrier and anti-caking agent
  • Separate particles after hydrolysis by high shear --> Colloidal MCC - high energy separation of microfibrils (consistent particles of the same size) --> stabilisation of foams and emulsions, especially in high T processing

Why is gum arabic highly soluble and a good emulsifier?

  • High solubility --> high level of branching, flexible O 1-3 galactic chain, charges on side chain
  • Emulsifier --> 3% polypeptide (protein)

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