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Summary Laura's Medische Microbiologie

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A snapshot of the summary - Laura's Medische Microbiologie

  • 1 Introduction to Bacteriology

  • 1.1 Microbiome vs pathogens

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  • Microbiome, human-associated microbes
    • 4x10^13 microorganisms
    • 500 - 1000 different spicies 
  • What do good bacteria of the microbiome do as a source of health?
    • Nutrition and metabolism of food 
      • breakdown of indigestible polysaccharides
      • production of vitamins B and K
    • Maturation and instruction of immune system 
    • Colonization resistance: protection against invaders
  • What do bad bacteria of the microbiome do as a source of disease?
    • Potential disease-causing bacteria among healthy microbiome
      • Risk of infection 
  • Which are the bad bacteria among the microbiome?
    • Neisseria meningitidis
      • gram-negative diplococcus
      • human is the host
      • causes meningitis/sepsis
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Group A Streptococcus



    Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae have a similar clinical picture but are different pathogens causing it. 
  • What is a carrier?
    Host that harbours potential pathogen without disease
  • What are the two different clinical pictures Staphylococcus aureus causes?
    • Scalded skin syndrome
      • Exfoliative toxins A and B
      • Toxin binds to a molecule within the desmosome and breaks it up so the skin cells become unstuck
    • Food poisoning
      • Enterotoxin A
      • Toxin is resistant to conditions (heat treatment, low pH) that destroy the bacteria that produce them


    The different clinical pictures is due to the way of entry of Staphylococcus aureus.
    • barrier of skin
    • ingested contaminated food


  • 1.2.1 Porte d'entrée: route of contamination and invasion of the host

  • What are the porte d'entrée sites?
    • Skin or mucous membranes 
      • Wound infections, STD (SSSS: bacteria S. Aureus)
    • Transcutaneous
      • via vectors, insects 
    • Directly in the bloodstream 
      • needle drug user, tooth extraction 
    • Airways
      • upper/lower respiratory tract (SSSS)
    • Gastrointestinal 
      • Contaminated food (good poisoning)
  • What are the different types of pathogenicity?
    1. Invasiveness (also called tropism): ability to invade tissues
      • Colonization
      • Bypass host defense
    2. Toxigenesis: ability to produce toxins
      • Exotoxins
      • Endotoxins
  • 1.2.2 Properties of microorganism

  • What is the course of infection determined by? Which are those?
    Virulence factors
    • Adhesins
    • Invasins
    • Capsule
    • Toxins
    • Enzymes
    • Pill
      • enhances bacteria's ability to bind to body tissues, which increases replication rate
  • What are the virulence factors of S. Aureus?
    Toxins
    • Cytolytic toxins
      • tissue destruction / abscess formation 
    • Entrotoxins (A-E)
      • toxicity
    • Exfoliative toxin
      • blistering: loss of desmosomes

    Enzymes 
    • Coagulase
      • conversion fibrinogen to fibrine
    • Hyaluronidase, lipase, fibrinolysis
      • distribution in tissues
    •  Catalase
      • protection against oxygen radicals 

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