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Summary Lec 3 & 4 - Hydrogeological systems

Course
- Hydrogeology
- Bense
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Earth and Environment
59 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Lec 3 & 4 - Hydrogeological systems

  • 1 Accumulation and coastal areas

  • Name the 4 characteristics of GW abstraction at the coast

     low abstraction rate
     many wells 
     parallel to the coastline
     Ghyben Herzberg
  • Give the formula for Ghyben Herzberg and indicate what it is used for in the context of GW abstraction?
    See
  • When do steady and when do transient states occur during regression, transgression and steady sea levels and what is the result for freshwater occurence?
    Current sea lvl - steady
    Regression - steady
    Transgression - transient state of system

    Anomalous freshwater and saltwater intrusion could occur in the transient system.
  • What could be causes of salinisation during a transient states when transgression (rising sea lvl) occurs?
    Salinisation by free convection and sideways sag of dense GW (think about the salt wedge pictures of estuaries from CODG). A freshwater wedge occurs in this case.
  • Where does freshwater sequestration occur and what do these places have in common?
    Nantucket, Florida, Suriname, New Jersey - east coast of the Americas
  • 2 River plains in lowland areas

  • What kind of river system is this? 
    Braiding
  • What is the result of the properties: climate, vegetation, hydraulic gradient, flow rate, flow velocity, sediment load on the characteristics of the river system, that influence porosity? How does this influence porosity?
    See. Meandering
    rivers : large total porosity , low effective porosity, low saturated conductivity

    Braiding: Relatively large total porosity , high effective porosity , high saturated conductivity
  • How do erosion terraces form on river plains in lowland areas?
    See
  • This is a picture of the river Berounka in Czech Republic. What do the two layers on the bedrock represent and how do they affect GW occurence?

    EROSION TERRACES: groundwater occurrence
    o thickness of the saturated layer
    o fragmentation of the terrace
    o interaction of the terrace with the river
  •  Which well would be most suitable for long term GW abstraction and why? Look at the properties like porosity, rock types, distance to drainage, etc. 

    See fig
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