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Summary LooseLeaf for Integrated Principles of Zoology

- David J Eisenhour, et al
ISBN-10 125956231X ISBN-13 9781259562310
103 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - LooseLeaf for Integrated Principles of Zoology Author: David J Eisenhour, Professor PhD Susan L Keen Larry S Roberts Cleveland P Hickman, , Emeritus Helen I' Anson Allan Larson ISBN: 9781259562310

  • 2 Phenotype plasticity

  • What is phenotypic plasticity?
    The capacity for change within a given genotype to respond to the environmental factors
  • What is developmental plasticity?
    Environmental factors during ontogeny determine phenotype of the mature organism
  • 3 Lz 3&4

  • 3.1 Early concepts: Preformation versus Epigenesis

  • What is the preformation concept of development?
    The idea that yound animals were preformed in eggs and that develpment was simply a matter of unfolding what was in the egg.
  • What is the epigenesis concept of development?
    This is the idea that a fertilised egg contains building materials only, and these are assembled by an unkown force. Now we know much more about this concept.
  • What are the six key events in development?
    1. Gamete formation
    2. Fertilisation
    3. Cleavage
    4. Gastrulation
    5. Organogenisis
    6. Growth
  • What is meant with "the hierarchy of developmental decisions"?
    The hierarchy in which different cell types arise in conditions created by the stages of development.
  • What happend when a structure becomes "determined"?
    As development proceeds the cells go on a course of differentation and their fate in the organism becomes irreversible. This is because of an progressive subdivision.
  • What are the two basic processen responsible for the progressive subdivisions in the embryo?
    These are cytoplasmic specification and induction
  • 3.3 Cleavage and early development

  • What happens during cleavage in an embryo?
    The embryo divides repeatedly, converting the single cell into many small cells called blastomeres until somatic cell size is attained, no growth occurs.
  • When does the embryo enter the blastula stage?
    AT the end of the cleavage stage when the embryo has been divided into many hundreds or thousands of cells
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