Fabrication and Processing of Engineering Materials - Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

4 important questions on Fabrication and Processing of Engineering Materials - Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

What five specific points are important in the processing of glasses?

1. The melting point, viscosity is 10 Pa.s, glass is fluid enough to be considered liquid.
2. The working point, viscosity is 103 Pa.s, glass is easily deformed.
3. The softening point, viscosity is 4 * 106 Pa.s, highest temperature it can be handled without deforming.
4. The annealing point, viscosity is 1012 Pa.s, residual stresses can be removed within 15 minutes.
5. The strain point, viscosity is 3 * 1013 Pa.s, fracture will occur before deformation.
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What five different methods are there for glass forming?

- Pressing
- Blowing
- Drawing
- Sheet forming
- Fiber forming
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What is thermal shock?

When a glass or other brittle ceramic material fractures due to the stress from temperature difference. Annealing is done to remove this stress.
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What is thermal tempering?

With this technique the glass is heated to Tsoftening point>T>Tg and than cooled to room temperature. The interior of the glass than contracts the surface resulting in a residual stress.
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