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Summary MOD2

Course
- MOD2
- Onbekend
- 2017 - 2018
- Universiteit Leiden (Universiteit Leiden, Leiden)
- Geneeskunde
1094 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - MOD2

  • Theme IA LT1-7

  • What are the macroscopical aspects of cancer?
    Benign: small sometimes, well demarcated, slow growing, noninvasive, nonmetastatic, well differentation

    Malignant: large, poorly demarcated, rapidly growing with hemorrhage and necrosis, locally invasive metastatic, poorly differentiated
  • What information gives immunochemistry?
    prognostic information of cancer (biomarkers)
    predictive information of cancer (biomarkers)
    both
  • Immunochemistry, tumor typing, keratin
    epithelial lineage
  • Immunochemistry, tumor subtyping, TTF-1
    thyroid tumors, adenocarcinoma of the lung
  • What is fine needle aspiration?
    cytology
    You make a cell analysis, used in cancer diagnostics. 
    It is easily done. 
    You can stick a needle in the swelling and you can analyze the cells quite easily and rapidly. 

    You can see size and shape of the nucleus and the amount of cytoplasm, but you can't see any detailed information about the proteins. 

    Palpable mass (eg thyroid, breast, skin, lymph node)
    Rapid, only cellular information
    DD reactive vs cancer
    Mostly followed by biopsy
  • What is prefereable way in cancer diagnostics?
    histology
  • What does sustaining proliferative signaling mean?
    Tumor cells are able to constantly signal themselves that they have to proliferate.
  • What are agents of carcinogenesis?
    - Aging (more indolent behaviour)
    - Exogenous (enviironmental) factors
    - Chronic inflammation -> risk factor to cancer development
    - Viruses -> if we can't clear the infection, they can develop malignant transfomrmation
    - genetics
  • What are exogenous factors in scrotal cancer?
    Soot. Not completely burned wood waste.
  • What kind of cancer can sun exposure cause?
    UV light is dangerous

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancer types. 
    Melanoma accounts for less than 1% of skin cancer cases, but the vast majority of skin cancer leads to death.    

    UV causes DNA damage in making a pyrimidine dimer.
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