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Summary Neuropsychology & psychiatric disorders

- Neuropsychology & psychiatric disorders
- -
- 2018 - 2019
- Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen)
- Psychologie
250 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Neuropsychology & psychiatric disorders

  • Lecture 01

  • Similarities between neurology and psychiatry
    •  application of neurological methodology and diagnostics in psychiatric diseases
    •  interest of neurology in complex mental functions and psychiatric symptoms in neurilogical diseases

    increased recognition
    • profound cognitive concequences of primary psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia)
    • profound affective disorders of primary neurological disorders (Huntington)
  • Approaches used in neurology and psychiatry
    • neurology used emperism and objectivity
    • psychiatry uses inerviewing skis, psycho-logical therapies and appreciation of individual differences 

    both can learn from each other 
    • neurologists assess psychiatric comorbidities
    • psychiatrist become familiar with neuroscience research tools (neuroimaging)
  • contribution of neuropsychology to psychiatry
    • some brain bases for neuropsychological functions have been established to some degree 
    • our understanding of neural correlates of psychiatric symptoms is more hazy
    • neuropsychological processes may help our understanding of witch brain regions are involved in psychiatric disorders 

    • wisconsin card sorting test
    • perseverative errors > continues with a wrong sorting strategy 
    • perseverative errors have been associated with frontal lesions
    • same perseverative errors are made in patients with schizophrenia > means that frontal cortex is dysfunctional in schizophrenia

    Higher brain functions cannot be mapped to a specific region  

    most mental processes are regulated by complex neural networks that connect various brain regions 
  • Improving diagnostic classification
    • patients with a specific psychiatric condition form a very heterogenous group
    • different pattern of performance on a neuropsychological test may be used to reduce the heterogeniety within disorders ans may improve diagnostic classifications 
  • improving diagnostic classification comorbidity
    • comotbidity between psychiatric diagnoses is common and similar symptoms are often observed across different disorders
    • examining basic neuropsychological processes in psychiatric disorders may help to explain patterns of comorbidity between diagnostic entities 

    • high comorbidity of adhd and substance use disorders 
    • high levels of impulsivity in patients with adhd and patients with substance use disorders 
  • improving diagnostic classification: identification of people at risk
    • neuropsychological evaluation can reveal changes in cognitive functions that may revael to later onset of psychopathology 
    • verbal memory and attention deficits in children predicted cases of adult schizophrenia 
  • Lecture 02: ADHD in adulthood

  • Adult presentation of ADHD
    • symptoms diminish in severity and frequency 
    • higher impact if symptoms due to increased demands of adult environment 
  • Adult presentation of ADHD: core symptom shift
    • reduction of motor symptoms 
    • reduction of impulsivity 
    • inattention more prominent 
  • Adult presentation of ADHD: associated features
    • affective instability, emotional over-reaching resulting in poor tolerance of stress 
    • cognitive disturbances 
    • disorganisation 
    • marital problems 
    • occupational problems 
    • financial problems 
    • substance abuse 
    • increased risk behaviour 
    • delinquency 
  • Adult presentation of ADHD: diagnosis
    • ADHD in adults is often misdiagnosed or overlooked 

    • either diagnosed in children (easy to recognise) or never diagnosed before (difficult to recognise)
    • 91-98% self-referral
    • diagnosis in childhood, family members trigger self-recognition of symptoms, learning about condition through media
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