Summary: Nutrition And Cancer

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  • 1 Week 1

  • 1.1 Introduction

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  • What major cancers worldwide new cases are there per year

    1. Lung
    2. Breast cancer
    3. Colorectal 
    4. Prostate

    18.1 million new patients per year in the world (2018)
  • What are the cancer-related deaths? And which cancers

    9.6 million in 2018
    1. Lung 
    2. Colorectum 
    3. Stomach 
    4. Liver
    5. Breast
  • How many patients are alive that were diagnosed with cancer in the previous 5 year? And which cancers?

    43.8 million people 
    1. Breast 
    2. Colorectum 
    3. Prostate
    4. Lung 
  • How does the environment plays a role in cancer development?

    • Smoking
    • Radiation 
    • Chemicals
    • Viruses
    • Sunbathing
    • Hormones
  • 1.2 Hallmarks of cancer

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  • Accumulation of (epi)genetic changesPicture

    • Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process
    • Multiple (epi)genetic alterations are required
    • Development over many years
    • Cancer cells less responsive to regulatory circuits of cellular proliferation and cell death
  • What is part of the cell cycle?

  • What is chronic proliferation: growth factors?

    • A growth factor can bind to a growth factor receptor on the membrane
    • After binding different processes can take place
      • Phosphorylation, a phosphate group is added to the receptor, which lead to a change in the structure of the receptor
    • This can lead to a signal to the nucleus, which can lead to proliferation
  • What is the epidermal growth factor (receptor)

    • There is a mutation in the receptor
    • Which means that the receptor is always active
    • And proliferation is always stimulated

  • What is the Retinoblastoma-associated (RB) protein?

    There is no stop signal and the cycle will go one and go on 

    1. Cdk1/cyclin B initiates mitosis
    2. Mitotic activators stimulate the synthesis of cyclin D
    3. Cyclins D and E and Cdk4 and Cdk2 phosphorylate RB, inactivating it
    4. Once R (restriction point) is passed, the cell cycle proceeds
    5. Cdk2/cyclin A stimulates dNA replication 

  • What is the tumour protein 53?

    It is a damage sensor. In cancer cells the p53 is possibly inactivated, so cellular responses are ignored. 

    the p53 is receiving
    • DNA damage
    • Activated oncogenes
    • Hypoxia
    • Ribonucleotide depletion 
    • Telomere erosion 

    the p53 is delivering
    • Apoptosis
    • Cell-cycle arrest
    • DNA repair
    • Differentiation 
    • Senescence

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