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A snapshot of the summary - Nutrition and Sports
Introduction; fit for the fight
Which of the following proteins are slowly digestible and which is fast digestible; Casein and whey?Casein is slowly digestible and whey is fast digestible
How much fluid should be consumed to re-hydrate the sweat-loss due to exercise?150%
What four factors influence an athlete's performance?Motivation, innate sporting talent, physical training and nutrition. Nutrition does also influence the physical training.
A lot of (external) factors can influence the effects when doing research in sports. Name some of these factors.
- Familiarization, the effect can be a learning effect instead of a training effect.
- Verbal encouragement
- Additional measurements
^^ All of the above come should be controlled when doing performance testing
- Validity, the performance that is simulated should be well resembled
- Reliability, the measurements used should precisely measure what is meant to be measured
- Sensitivity, the measurements used, should detect small but important differences
Energy metabolism I
What are the ways to get a source of ATP for muscle force generation?
- ATP breakdown
- Phosphocreatine hydrolysis = rapid (and great) energy release without the need for oxygen which occures in the sarcoplasm (1 and 2 together is the phosphagen system)
- Anaerobic glycolysis = Glucose-6-P to lactate. (2 and 3 together is the substrate-level-phosporylation)
- Aerobic glycolysis
- Direct uptake of glucose from the blood with GLUT4
- Protein oxidation
- ATP breakdown
Does a weightlifter use mostly type 1 or type 2 fibers?Type 2
What is the adenylate pool?The pool of ATP, ADP and AMP.
Why does cross-country skiers have the highest maximal oxygen consumption/aerobic capacity?Cross country skiers have to use more muscle groups, they have more active muscle mass during their sport.
Energy metabolism II
What are important factors influence the metabolic response to exercise?
- exercise intensity
- physical fitness of the subject
- exercise duration
- substrate availability
- nutritional status
- feeding during exercise
- mode of exercise
- previous exercise
- environmental temperature
What is PFK? What inhibits PFK and what stimulates PFK? And what is the results of an inhibition of PFK?PFK is an enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis. High levels of ATP, PCr and citrate inhibit PFK. High levels of ADP, AMP and fructose-6-P stimulate PFK. An inhibition of PFK results in accumulation of Glucose-6-P, which inhibites hexokinase. Hexokinase stimulates the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-P.