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Summary Nutrition and the Brain

Course
- Nutrition and the Brain
- Ondine
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Voeding en Gezondheid
412 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Nutrition and the Brain

  • L2 basic principles brain function

  • There are different types of neurons, which one? And which one do you see the most in the brain
    • Unipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Pseudounipolar 
    • Multipolar 


    Multipolar
  • Which Glial Cell types are in the CNS? And which are in the PNS?
    CNS
    • Astrocyte
    • Oligodendrocyte
    • Microglia
    • Ependymal cell

    PNS
    • Satellite cell
    • Schwann cell
  • How does the neurotransmitter release works?
    • Synapse
    • Action potential
    • Membrane depolarisation
    • Ca2+ influx
    • Syntaxin --> docking of the synaptic vesicle

    • Synaptic vesicle contains neurotransmitter (e.g. dopamine, serotonin)
  • What do you need for instant synthesis
    Endocannabinoids 
  • What is synaptic plasticity  (neuronal communication)
    It is a base of learning processes

    • After long term potentiation (LTP), synaptic communication is strengthened
    • Base of learning and memory processes
    • Challenge and stimulate your brain, else synapses degenerate
  • How can you enter into the brain (blood-brain-barrier)
    • Molecules diffuse across membranes (e.g., oxygen and other gases, lipid-permeable compounds)
    • Transporter molecules (e.g., glucose transporters)
    • High electrical charge slows down diffusion across membranes
    • Highly restricted: neuroactiva compounds (e.g., glutamate, adrenalin, dopamine)
  • Lipids; diffuse across membranes. Within the brain they are involved in:
    • Neuronal membranes 
    • Myelin 
    • Endocannabinoids 
  • How do astrocytes work ???
    • If there are low glucose levels: Astrocytes produce lactate (glycogen storage)
    • Lactate: Metabolized by neurons and oligodendrocytes
    • If there are high glucose levels: Glycogen storage restored

    Lactate levels of the brain: Hypoxia, Neurodegenerative diseases
  • What happens in Alzheimer's disease? (Pathologies)
    • Reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism (early)
    • Disturbed glucose metabolism is associated with AD progression (reduces GLUT1 expression in BBB and astrocytes)
  • What happens in Parkinson's disease? (Pathologies)
    • Widespread cortical hypo-metabolism
    • Glucose hypermetabolisme in the external pallidum
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