Summary: Nutrition And The Brain

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  • L2 basic principles brain function

    This is a preview. There are 36 more flashcards available for chapter 06/04/2021
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  • There are different types of neurons, which one? And which one do you see the most in the brain

    • Unipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Pseudounipolar 
    • Multipolar 

  • Which Glial Cell types are in the CNS? And which are in the PNS?

    • Astrocyte
    • Oligodendrocyte
    • Microglia
    • Ependymal cell

    • Satellite cell
    • Schwann cell
  • How does the neurotransmitter release works?

    • Synapse
    • Action potential
    • Membrane depolarisation
    • Ca2+ influx
    • Syntaxin --> docking of the synaptic vesicle

    • Synaptic vesicle contains neurotransmitter (e.g. dopamine, serotonin)
  • What do you need for instant synthesis

  • What is synaptic plasticity  (neuronal communication)

    It is a base of learning processes

    • After long term potentiation (LTP), synaptic communication is strengthened
    • Base of learning and memory processes
    • Challenge and stimulate your brain, else synapses degenerate
  • How can you enter into the brain (blood-brain-barrier)

    • Molecules diffuse across membranes (e.g., oxygen and other gases, lipid-permeable compounds)
    • Transporter molecules (e.g., glucose transporters)
    • High electrical charge slows down diffusion across membranes
    • Highly restricted: neuroactiva compounds (e.g., glutamate, adrenalin, dopamine)
  • Lipids; diffuse across membranes. Within the brain they are involved in:

    • Neuronal membranes 
    • Myelin 
    • Endocannabinoids 
  • How do astrocytes work ???

    • If there are low glucose levels: Astrocytes produce lactate (glycogen storage)
    • Lactate: Metabolized by neurons and oligodendrocytes
    • If there are high glucose levels: Glycogen storage restored

    Lactate levels of the brain: Hypoxia, Neurodegenerative diseases
  • What happens in Alzheimer's disease? (Pathologies)

    • Reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism (early)
    • Disturbed glucose metabolism is associated with AD progression (reduces GLUT1 expression in BBB and astrocytes)
  • What happens in Parkinson's disease? (Pathologies)

    • Widespread cortical hypo-metabolism
    • Glucose hypermetabolisme in the external pallidum

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