A snapshot of the summary - Nutritional Neurosciences
1 Introduction to neurosciences
Which to major parts make the human nervous system?
Central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system
Insula cortex: insula = eiland
Hidden in the lateral sulcus
Concealed by parts of frontal, parietal and temporal lobes
What are the functions?
Limbic area: emotion, interoception, homeostasis
Anterior insula: olfactory gustatory, vicero-autonomic, and limbic functions, subjective feelings
Posterior insula: perception of bodily sensations: pain, gastric distension
What are the (chemical) senses?
In which two ways can olfaction and flavor happen?
Orthonasal and retronasal (waarneming via mond)
How is gustation organised?
Tongue - papillae - taste buds - taste receptor cells
CN VII facial, IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus
What is meant by trigeminal sense?
CN V (branches)
Pain (hot, cool...)
Brainstem, thalamus, somatosensory cortex
Insula OFC, limbic system
2 Measuring brain activity/MRI
What is meant by spatial resolution?
Higher spatial resolution means more image details.
What is the normal situation and what happens with fMRI?
Normal situation: atomic nuclei are randomly oriented: net signal is 0.
The magnetic field inside the scanner causes the nuclei to align with the direction of the field
When pointing in the same direction, the tiny magnetic signals from individuals nuclei add up resulting in a signal large enough to measure
What is measured in MRI?
The signal from hydrogen in water
Magnetic field cause protons to align to the B0 in one of two states. Which ones?
Anti-parallel (high energy!)
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