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Summary Nutritional Neurosciences

- Paul Smeets
181 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Nutritional Neurosciences Author: Paul Smeets

  • 1 Introduction to neurosciences

  • Which to major parts make the human nervous system?

    Central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system

  • Insula cortex: insula = eiland

    Hidden in the lateral sulcus
    Concealed by parts of frontal, parietal and temporal lobes


    What are the functions?

    Limbic area: emotion, interoception, homeostasis
    Anterior insula: olfactory gustatory, vicero-autonomic, and limbic functions, subjective feelings
    Posterior insula: perception of bodily sensations: pain, gastric distension

  • What are the (chemical) senses?

    Gustatory cortex
    Visual cortex
    Auditory cortex
    Taste (tongue)

    Olfactory cortex

  • In which two ways can olfaction and flavor happen?

    Orthonasal and retronasal (waarneming via mond)

  • How is gustation organised?

    Tongue - papillae - taste buds - taste receptor cells


    CN VII facial, IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus

  • What is meant by trigeminal sense?

    CN V (branches)
    Pain (hot, cool...)
    Brainstem, thalamus, somatosensory cortex
    Insula OFC, limbic system


  • 2 Measuring brain activity/MRI

  • What is meant by spatial resolution?

    Higher spatial resolution means more image details.

  • What is the normal situation and what happens with fMRI?

    Normal situation: atomic nuclei are randomly oriented: net signal is 0.

    The magnetic field inside the scanner causes the nuclei to align with the direction of the field

    When pointing in the same direction, the tiny magnetic signals from individuals nuclei add up resulting in a signal large enough to measure

  • What is measured in MRI?

    The signal from hydrogen in water

  • Magnetic field cause protons to align to the B0 in one of two states. Which ones?

    Parallel (low-energy!)
    Anti-parallel (high energy!)

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