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Summary Oncology

- Oncology
- Steenbergen
- 2020 - 2020
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Biomedische Wetenschappen
189 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Oncology

  • 1. Chapter 1

  • From which tissue does a carcinoma arise?
  • What does the term incidence mean? How is it normally expressed?
    The incidence is the number of new cases (so newly diagnosed) that is registered within a certain period (mostly one year).
    Mostly expressed as the number of new cases per 100.000 inhabitants / persons each year.
  • From which tissue does an adenocarcinoma arise?
    Glandular tissues
  • From which tissue does a sarcoma arise?
    Mesodermal tissues (e.g. Bone, muscle)
  • From which tissue does a lymphoma arise?
    (Progenitors of) white blood cells
  • What is the difference between a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect?
    Cytotoxic: prevention of cell division
    Cytostatic: killing of cells
  • What are the three phases of clinical trials?
    Phase I: assessment of safety of a limited number of patients. Also, assessment of pharmacokinetics and metabolism.
    Phase II: assessment of efficacy at a safe dose
    Phase III: extensive trials. Assessment of added value. Comparison with current standard treatment.
  • 2. Chapter 2 (1)

  • Cancer can result from (epi)genetic alterations in human cancer genes. How?
    1. Stability genes are inactivated
    2. Oncogenes are activated
    3. Tumor suppressor genes are inactivated
  • How can ROS cause cancer?
    ROS can result in 8-oxoguanine. DNA polymerase reads this as a thymine instead of a guanine.
  • What is the DNA repair mechanism for bulky adducts?
    Nucleotide excision repair
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