Summary: Organizational Change Tentamenstof

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  • 1 Lecture 1 Approaches to change

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  • 1.2 Van der Ven & Poole - Alternative approaches to study change

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  • Van der Ven & Poole determined four different approaches on studying change, based on ontological and epistemological differences. Elaborate on this.

    The ontological differences are based on:
    - The world is made of things. From this perspective change is studied as one state to the other state. Change in organizations is a noun.
    - The world is made of processes that restructure one another. Change in organizations is a verb.


    The epistemological differences are based on: 
    - Variance method; the relation between independent and dependent variable. The aim is to explain/predict. 
    - Process method; the sequence of events that unfold over time. 
  • Given the four approaches of Van der Ven & Poole, what's the difference regarding time?

    Approach 1: time is not an active part of the process, but rather a medium. 


    Approach 2: Time occurs when events occur. 

    Approach 3: Time is part of constructions 

    Approach 4: Time is the independent variable that produces the patterns we see. 
  • 2 Lecture 2 Diagnosing the need for change

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  • 2.1 Lecture notes

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  • What's the difference between diagnosis and diagnosing?

    Diagnosis is the judgement about what the problem is after examining. It's the process of understanding how and organization functions and provides information to design interventions. Its about what elements shape peoples minds. 

    Instead, diagnosing is about how individuals as part of a collective commit themselves to a single frame as a basis of sense making and coordinated actions. Its about sense making. By looking at how people frame things, you can understand how people come to certain actions.
  • There are different levels of diagnosis. How does the diagnosis relate to the paper of Palmer and Dunford?

    Diagnosis can be placed on the top side of the model.
  • How is the paper of Cornelissen et al related to diagnosing?

    This paper is related to diagnosing because it shows how commitment to a collective frame builds up and may come to overrule reflective thought. It shows us how people frame circumstances and how this (can) affects the interpretation and actions.
  • How is the paper of Kaplan related to diagnosing?

    This paper is about how actors transform own cognitive frames into organizational pre-dominant frames through daily interaction.
  • Kaplan distinguishes diagnostic and prognostic. What's the difference?

    Diagnostic - Understanding the problem 
    Prognostic - Understanding the solution 
  • 2.2 Kaplan - Framing contests: Strategy making under uncertainty

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  • Frames and framing are related to the framing contest model of Kaplan (2008). What's the difference?

    Frames are the lenses through which people see the environment, problems and possible solutions. It are the means by which managers make sense of ambiguous information from the environment. 

    Framing is the active process to make a cognitive (individual) frame the dominant collective frame. 
  • How can frames structure outcomes according to Kaplan (2008)?

    Frames can only structure outcomes to the degree that they were shared on a collective level.
  • Frames affect information gathering, analysis and interpretation. How are frames related to diagnosis and prognostic aspects?

    Diagnostic; aspects of frame attributes to contribute to the understanding of the problem. 

    Prognostic; aspects of the frames, based on the diagnosis, to know what solution to apply. 

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