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Summary Peace and Economy Building

Course
- Peace and Economy Building
- van der Velde
- 2020 - 2021
- De Haagse Hogeschool (De Haagse Hogeschool, Den Haag)
- IPM
148 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Peace and Economy Building

  • What are war economies? - Main challenges

  • The classic war economy is the mechanism through which economic resources were dedicated to the preparation for and conduct of war. 

    • Through which mechanism do the preparations take place in a classic war economy? 
    • Military-industrial complex. 
    • Ministry of Defense. 

      - Private military companies. 
      - Production of weapons. 


    - Considered essential to national defence. 
    - Ensured in international law and relations. 
  • Classic or irregular war economy? 

    • What is an irregular war economy? 
    • An economy that continues in conflict zones both despite and because of the violence. 


    - The dominant form of warfare today, irregular warfare, is often sustained by the informal and illicit markets that form these economies. 
    • Who benefits from an irregular war economy? 
    • Regime elites and non-state armed groups. 

    • Households because of jobs and livelihoods. 
    • Describe the characteristics of a Zone of Contention (Twistgebied): 
    • Insurgents (opstandelingen) are vulnerable to law enforcement. 

    • Effective state. 
    • Describe the characteristics of a Zone of expansion: 
    • Better supporting infrastructure,
      a more consistent physical presence. 

    • Established level of control. 

    • Longer-term profit. 
    • Describe the characteristics of Zone of control: 
    • Physical control of the territory. 

    • De facto government. 

    • Enforcer of law and order. 

    • Capture. 
  • Name 4 actions of conflict financing in a Zone of Contention:
    Predatory acts (quick returns) (roofacties) 

    • Hit-and-run. 

    • Looting. 

    • Armed robberies. 

    • Kidnapping for ransom. > Short term profit horizon. 
  • Name 3 actions of conflict financing in a Zone of expansion:
    • Informal trade duties (e.g. Checkpoints). 

    • Employment rackets (Arbeidsreceptoren). 

    • Revolutionary taxation > Longer-term profit horizon. 
  • Name 6 actions of conflict financing in a Zone of Control:
    Symbiotic financing 

    • Provision of goods and services to legitimate society. 
    • Via smuggling and the provision of illegal consumer goods. 
    • Land (agriculture). 
    • Resources (minerals, timber). 
    • People (soldiers, labour taxation). 
    • Roads and borders (taxation) > Long term profit horizon. 
  • ISIS

  • Name four sources of income for ISIS:

    1. Control of oil and gas reservoirs.
    2. Bank looting, extortion, and human trafficking.
    3. Other resource extraction and production facilities.
    4. Extorting agriculture.
    5. Cultural artefacts.

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