A snapshot of the summary - Perception & Action
1: The Brain-Mind link 1
What is the Encephalization Quotient?Brain weight vs body mass: E=CS^r
E= brain weight
C = Cephalization factor
S = Body weight
r= constant (0,66 for mammals)
EQ = The size of the brain/weight ration compared to other animals
What kind of animals succeed more in problem solving?- Animals with large brains,
- Animals with high Cephalisation.
Does brain size and encephalization depend on social behaviour?Yes, social animals usually have bigger brains.
What does lissencephaly mean? What does it mean in the human brain?The differences in gyration. (a sea cow has almost none gyri, while a land cow has lots.)
Lissencephaly in a human brain means severe developmental delay, seizures and early death.
Why is it difficult, if not impossible, to make allometric approaches about the relation ship between brain size and body?
- Weight issues (Birds having to fly)
- Protection from cold, (fat of whales)
- Muscle proportion
- Cortex vs Subcortical vs Cerebellum
- Cortical thickness
- Neurons vs Glial cells (supportive tissue)
- Neuron Density
What parts of the thalamus differ & for what reason?-Sexually Dismorphic Nucleus (SDN): Larger in males than females
- Bed Nucleus Stria Treminalis (BST): Larger in males than females. Smaller in men that feel women.
-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: (SCN) Larger in woman than men. Larger in homosexual man than hetero sexual man
What is golgi staining en what does it do?Fills the entire cell with silver
Reveals shape of individual cells
Fills some cells, not all (why?)
What are stellate cells and pyramidal cells?Stellate cells: Small cells, circular dendrites, short axons, often inhibitory
Pyramidal cells: Triangular cell body, apical dendrites, ling axons that leave the cortex, mostly excitatory.
What do we call the study of cellular composition of the brain?Cytoarchitecture
What are the different layers in cytoarchitecture?Integration Layer 1: Only fibers
Processing Layers 2&3
Input layer: 4
Output Layer: 5&6
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