Summary: Pharmacology And Nutrition

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  • 1 Introduction

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  • How do you know a drug is approved?

    Nationally approved: RVG code
    Homeopathic medicines: RVH code
    European registration: EU code
  • How does Naproxen and other NSAIDs work?

    NSAID drugs bind to cyclo-oxygenase, therefore less pain giving compounds are made when there is an inflammation and there will be less pain.
  • What is the difference between COX1 and COX2?

    COX1 is the good-guy, it is consistantly active and protects the stomach.
    COX2 is the bad-guy, it is only active when there is an inflammation and this works as a warning. 

    It would be optimal to only block COX2. But this did not work very good and had side effects.
  • What happens when you take a medicine?

    First it needs to dissolve into a solution, otherwise you can not absorp it. If it is dissoved in the GI tract it can be absorped and comes inside your plasma.
    Then the medicine needs to go to the side of action, you can not tell it where to go. The tissues and proteins will help the medicine to find the side of action, the medicine can also undergo biotransformation or excretion to get out of the body again,
  • What are the different process phases in pharma?

    - Pharmaceutical phase: formulation, administration, desintegration, dissolution ect.
    - Pharmacokinetic phase: Absorbtion, distribution, metabolism and excretion
    - Pharmacodynamic phase: Interactions with molecular targets.
  • Basics of oral drug absorption

    - Almost never absorbt in the stomach, mostly in the duodenum.
    - Drug should be in dissolved state
    - Often by passive diffusion
    - Sometimes active transport involved
    - Lipid soluble compounds (partly) with lipids
    - Metabolism in intestinal wall can be considerable
  • What is a slow release tablet?

    This tablet is hard to dissolve and that makes the absorption slow and therefore there is a low concentration of the drug coming into the body for a longer time.
  • What is oral bioavailability?

    A high oral bioavailability means that there is no to few metabolism of the drug and therefore a lot of it comes into the systematic circulation. The more metabolism, the lower the amount of efficient drug.
  • What is the difference between phytotherapy and homeopathy?q

    Phytotherapy is really making use of pants and herbs to get the health benefits out of there.

    Homeopathy is the beliefe that substances that causes symptoms in healthy people can cure similar symptems in sick people. This is been done by using dilutions. So many times diluted that there is not even an single molecule left. The dilution will remember its original substance which can cure.
    It is seen as bullshit...
  • 2 Pharmacodynamics

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  • What are the principles of pharmacodynamics?

    - The molecular action of a drug/bioactive can often be explained by-, and predicted from a receptor concept.
    - Receptors: macromolecules including enzymes, transporters, structures on cell membranes, transcription factors, nucleotides etc.
    - Receptors are mostly normal regulatory structures playing a role in the physiology of the organism.
    - Natural ligands: neurotransmitters, hormones or other signaling molecules
    - Drugs just bind by coincidence or by design to these receptors

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