Summary: Philosophy Of Science

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  • 1. Rationalism & Empiricism in Antiquity

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  • By who and for what is Socrates accused?

    Meletus accused Socrates as being a wrong-doer in not recognizing the Gods which teh city recognizes, and introducing other new divinities.
  • Why are most people not able to attain knowledge according to Heraclitus?

    Due to the ever changing nature of appearances. Nothing is, everything becomes.
  • What is the motto of Heraclitus & Protagoras:

    Truth is in the eye of the beholder.
  • What must we do for scientific progress to be made possible according to Aristotle?

    Leave abstract theorizing and turn to the empirical facts of nature.
  • Definition Peripatetic Axiom (Aquinas):

    Nothing is in the intellect which was not first found in the senses.
  • What apprehends the first principles according to Aristotle?

    Intuition (nous)
  • 2. A new (philosophy of) science

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  • What are the two forms of experiment?

    1. Observing nature.
    2. Intervene in nature; hold all variables fixed but 1.
  • Where would science rely on according to Bacon?

    No longer on faith, tradition and church authority, but would instead be guided by observation & experiment.
  • What are the 3 different views of the position of the earth?

    1. Aristotle: earth immobile, located at centre universe.
    2. Ptolemeus: earth sits motionless in centre universe, with all planets circling around it.
    3. Copernicus: Revolution Heavenly Spheres: earth and other planets revolve around sun.
  • What must one do to establish a science based on accurate knowledge according to Bacon?

    One must purge the mind of its Idols.

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