5 good questions and answers about "Psychological signals of satiety"

How does GLP-1 work?
  • Produced in ileum and colon
  • direct appetite suppressing effect on CNS
  • stimulates insulin and inb=hibits glycogen release
  • inhibits gastric emptying
  • ileal brake mechanism

  • 4 exogenous studies found effects on appetite
  • 38 studies no effects
  • supra-physiological concentrations lowers food intake
  • increases especially after proteins and carbs
  • biphasic response
How to measure the biological markers?
Marker = indicator
Biomarker = indicator of a biological process
  • a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention

Large between subject variation (within-subjects design)
Day-to-Day variation
Relative to control treatment
Blood measures: indirect
Tracers: indirect
Often a combi of biomarkers is needed to understant the full picture
Name some biomarkers of digestion and absorption:
  • Circulating peptides/metabolites can be measured in serum or plasma
  • single (fasting) blood samples
  • multiple blood samples after a meal with a catheter
  • commercial kits for biochemical measurements
Name some biomarkers of gastric processes/emptying:
  • Indirect techniques (tracers)
    • paracetamol in serum
    • stable isotope in breath
  • Direct measurements (imaging)
    • 3D anatomical MRI, volume estimation over time
How to measure satiety? (2)
  1. Standardize satiety before baseline
    1. certain amount of test-food (preload), in which you vary one property
      1. VAS of hunger and satiety
  2. Standardize satiety at baseline
    1. certain amount of test-food (preload), in which you vary one property
      1. food intake at test meal
      2. time until next meal (30 min, 60 min, 3 hours)
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