14 good questions and answers about "Immune function / overtraining"

How does exercise influence your immune system?

the impact of exercise on immunity depends on the intensity, duration and load of a training.Moderate intensity exercise..
  • improve vaccin response
  • lower inflammation
  • improve immune markers in disease

High intensity exercise:
  • suppressed mucosal and cellular immunity
  • increased symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)
  • impaired vaccin response


J-curve > at moderate exercise there is the least risk of URTI
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Which 2 hormones are important factors in exercise and immune system?
Cortisol and adrenalin. This could lead to impaired cell mediated immunity and inflammation
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Factors interfering with exercise in athletes:
  • Crowds of people
  • air level
  • sleep disruption
  • psychologiacl stress
  • altered diet
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How does protein interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Cell replication
  • protein production such as:
    • immunoglobulins
    • acute phase proteins
    • cytokines
  • riskgroups: food restriction diet
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How does energy deficiency interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Weight reduction
    • aestethic sports
    • body weight sports
  • anorexia athletica
  • RED-S syndrome
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How do vitamins and minerals interfere with the immune system and exercise?
Vitamins:
  • Vit A, E, Folic acid, Vit B6, B12, C deficiencies cause impaired immune function

Minerals:
  • Zinc, iron, magnesium, copper deficiencies cause impaired immune function


- deficiencies in these vitamins and minerals are not common
- excess is also very bad, so take care when supplementing
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How does fatty acids interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • PUFAs: anti inflammatory effects
  • exercise > small inflammation, take fatty acids to reduce thes inflammations
  • small inflammations needed for training adaptations, so to lower the inflammation levels is maybe not a good idea
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How does stress interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Stress is high when amount of energy, fuel, nutrition is low
  • glycogen depleted?
  • > cortisol production is high
  • > IL-6 levels high

Low carb diet cause higher levels in cortisol, IL-6 and IL-1 compared to high carb diet
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How does fluid interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  1. Prevent dehydration (stress hormone)
  2. maintain saliva flow rate
    1. IgA, lysozyme and amylase
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How does glutamine interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Leukocytes use it for energy and cell division
  • prolonged exercise? -> gutamine levels decrease
  • patients? -> gut function improves
  • exercise? -> no effect on NK cell activity, neutrophil function and lymphocyte proliferation
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What is the GI tract? And which organs and function?
Take in, digest and excrete the remaining of the ingested food

Small intestine and large intestine
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Which GI problems come from exercise?
GI problems...
- limits exercise performance
- causes no training
- causes no competition 

Incidence rates of GI problems vary a lot:
  • depends on: mode, duration, intensity, type of symptoms, age, training status, sex, dietary intake and methods of investigation

Upper GI symptoms: heart burn, chest pain, bloating, vomiting
Lower GI symptoms: abdominal cramps, belchign, the urge to defecate, diarrhea, bleeding
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Nutritional impact on GI tract problems:
  • Food dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis
  • cereals, seafood, peanuts, eggs, milk
  • exercise > increased permeability > passing through of larger molecules > allergic reactino / shock
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Gastric emptying speed can be delayed by...
  • Osmolarity
  • volume
  • temperature
  • fat content
  • CHO content
  • particle size
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