14 good questions and answers about "Immune function / overtraining"

How does exercise influence your immune system?

the impact of exercise on immunity depends on the intensity, duration and load of a training.Moderate intensity exercise..
  • improve vaccin response
  • lower inflammation
  • improve immune markers in disease

High intensity exercise:
  • suppressed mucosal and cellular immunity
  • increased symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)
  • impaired vaccin response

J-curve > at moderate exercise there is the least risk of URTI
Which 2 hormones are important factors in exercise and immune system?
Cortisol and adrenalin. This could lead to impaired cell mediated immunity and inflammation
Factors interfering with exercise in athletes:
  • Crowds of people
  • air level
  • sleep disruption
  • psychologiacl stress
  • altered diet
How does protein interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Cell replication
  • protein production such as:
    • immunoglobulins
    • acute phase proteins
    • cytokines
  • riskgroups: food restriction diet
How does energy deficiency interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Weight reduction
    • aestethic sports
    • body weight sports
  • anorexia athletica
  • RED-S syndrome
How do vitamins and minerals interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Vit A, E, Folic acid, Vit B6, B12, C deficiencies cause impaired immune function

  • Zinc, iron, magnesium, copper deficiencies cause impaired immune function

- deficiencies in these vitamins and minerals are not common
- excess is also very bad, so take care when supplementing
How does fatty acids interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • PUFAs: anti inflammatory effects
  • exercise > small inflammation, take fatty acids to reduce thes inflammations
  • small inflammations needed for training adaptations, so to lower the inflammation levels is maybe not a good idea
How does stress interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Stress is high when amount of energy, fuel, nutrition is low
  • glycogen depleted?
  • > cortisol production is high
  • > IL-6 levels high

Low carb diet cause higher levels in cortisol, IL-6 and IL-1 compared to high carb diet
How does fluid interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  1. Prevent dehydration (stress hormone)
  2. maintain saliva flow rate
    1. IgA, lysozyme and amylase
How does glutamine interfere with the immune system and exercise?
  • Leukocytes use it for energy and cell division
  • prolonged exercise? -> gutamine levels decrease
  • patients? -> gut function improves
  • exercise? -> no effect on NK cell activity, neutrophil function and lymphocyte proliferation
What is the GI tract? And which organs and function?
Take in, digest and excrete the remaining of the ingested food

Small intestine and large intestine
Which GI problems come from exercise?
GI problems...
- limits exercise performance
- causes no training
- causes no competition 

Incidence rates of GI problems vary a lot:
  • depends on: mode, duration, intensity, type of symptoms, age, training status, sex, dietary intake and methods of investigation

Upper GI symptoms: heart burn, chest pain, bloating, vomiting
Lower GI symptoms: abdominal cramps, belchign, the urge to defecate, diarrhea, bleeding
Nutritional impact on GI tract problems:
  • Food dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis
  • cereals, seafood, peanuts, eggs, milk
  • exercise > increased permeability > passing through of larger molecules > allergic reactino / shock
Gastric emptying speed can be delayed by...
  • Osmolarity
  • volume
  • temperature
  • fat content
  • CHO content
  • particle size
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