6 good questions and answers: "General Medicine - Anticipation to a meal"
422 million in 2014 (10% of the global population)
Prevalence has been rising more rapidly in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. In 2019, an estimated 1.5 million deaths worldwide were directly caused by diabetes.
And for type 2?
- family history (genetics - activation of several genes)
- diet (especially low vit D intake)
- infections/illnesses which can damage the pancreas
- obesity (80-85% of the overall risk)
- diet (especially saturated fat)
- physical inactivity
- kidney failure
- heart attacks
- lower limb amputation
Adults with diabetes have a two- to three-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Furthermore, neuropathy (nerve damage) in the feet, combined with reduced blood flow, increases
the chance of foot ulcers, infection and eventual need for limb amputation. Moreover, diabetes is
among the leading causes of kidney failure. Another complication is diabetic retinopathy (damage to retina of the eyes), which is an important cause of blindness. It occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. Diabetes is the cause of 2.6% of global blindness.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: after 8 hours fasting, a blood test will be done to test the sugar levels. The results are:
- normal: < 100 mg/dL (5.5 mmol/L)
- prediabetes: 100-125 mg/dL
- diabtes: >126 mg/dL
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): drinking beverage with glucose and then haing you blood tested every 30-60 minutes for 3 hours.
- diabetes: > 200 mg/dL at 2 hours
A healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tabacco use are ways to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.
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