8 good questions and answers about "Supplements and ergogenic aids"

What are sport supplements?
A food, food component, nutrient or non-food compound that is purposefully ingested in additino to the habitually consumed diet with the aim o achieving a specific health and/or performance benefit
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Why do athletes take supplements?
  • Because they're told to do so!
    • personal testimonials
    • coaches and trainers
    • advertisers
  • because they believe it helps
    • to improve performance
    • to prevent illnessess
    • to compensatefor extra demands during intense training
  • because competitors use them
  • as compensation for an inadequate diet


> use has large differences per discipline
> not only in top athletes
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AIS supplement classification system =
Group A, B, C, D stand for...
Group A:
  • supplements for which there is strong scientific evidence for use during exercise.
    • example: caffein, bicarbonate, B-alanine, glycerol
Group B:
  • supplement for which there is emerging scientific support
    • example: curcumin, carnitine
Group C:
  • supplements for which the scientific evidence in not supportive of benefit amongst athletes
    • example: magnesium, HMB, co-enyme Q10
Group D:
  • compounds that are banned or with high risk of contaminatino wth substanced that could lead to a positive doping test
    • example: anabolic steroids
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(nonsteroidal) selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) =
Enhanced tissue selectivity
Bind to the AR with affinity similar to testosterone, but exhibit only partial agonist properties in androgenic tissue
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Beta-agonists =
Beta blockers...
Selectvely stimulate the beta-2 receptors (adrenergic)
Therapeutically in use for symptomatic relief in asthma (bronchodilation)

Side effects:
  • increase of muscle formation and strength
  • decrease of fat tissue
  • but.. Tremor


Beta-blockers:
- drugs for use angina pectoris hypertension
- forbidden in competitino for cerain disciplines:
  • archery
  • gmnastics
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Human growth hormone (GH) =
effects and risks
Effects:
  • secreted naturally by pituitary; synthetic form used by some athletes
  • difficult to detect synthetic from natural in drug testing
  • proven to increase lipolysis and blood glucose levels
  • changes in muscle mass and strength are found in some studies
Risks:
  • can cause acromegaly (bone thickening), enlargement of internal organs, muscle and joint weakness, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease
  • contaminated in past
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Stimulants such as caffeine, ephedrine, synephrine, amphetamine =
  • Increase energy, endurance reduce mental fatigue, increase fat usage
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Narcotics and glucocorticoids are forbidden in-competition
a. True
b. False
a. True

! Glucocorticoids effective to limit inflammatory resonse, to stimulate lipolysis, more katabolic
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