Study Cards on asian, china, communist

What is the widespread assumption about modernization?
That modernization means westernization. This implies that industrial capitalism is always accompanied by liberal democracy.
(Japan, Thailand, Taiwan).
What does this position fail to take into account?
The degree to which polyarchical (rule by many) institutions operate differently in an Asian context from the way they do in a Western one.
It ignores the difference between cultures influenced by Confucian ideas and values, and those shaped by liberal individualism.
What kind of similar characteristics do East Asian Regimes have?
1. They are orientated more around economic goals than around political ones (priority: boost growth and deliver prosperity, rather than enlarging individual freedom). --> see tiger economies.
2. Broad support for 'strong' government: powerful ruling parties are tolerated and general respect for the state. + general acceptance of state as father figure should guide the decisions of private as well as public bodies.
3. General disposition to respect leaders.
4. Emphasis on community and social cohesion.
What are the differences between East Asian Regimes?
China (and North Korea): reconstituted communist regimes, in which a monopolistic communist party still dominates.
Becoming industrialized and increasingly urbanized, but China still has a significant agricultural sector. Rely on a massive rural population to provide cheap labour.

Japan (and tiger economies: Taiwan, Singapore): growth is largely based on technological innovation, and an emphasis on education and training,
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