Study Cards on deliberation, macro, micro

What did Rousseau mean by a developmental democracy?
He saw citizens could only be free if they can shape their life and their community themselves and believed that there is a general will to have a state
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What is Rousseau's model of developmental democracy?
Democracy was a means to through which human beings could achieve freedom/autonomy. But citizens are only free when they participate directly and continuously in shaping the life of their community.
Ultimately freedom means obedience to the general will.
In his system a relatively high level of economic equality was needed.

Can be seen as a totalitarian democracy, because the general will cannot just be established by asking citizens what they want, so there is room for the general will to be determined from above (someone claiming to act in the true interest of society).
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What is the difference between micro and macro deliberation?
John Stuart Mill said micro deliberation occurs at a time and involves face-to-face interaction, macro deliberation takes place in a wider public sphere.
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How have Rousseau's ideas helped shape the modern idea of participatory democracy?
A participatory democracy is a society in which each and every citizen is able to achieve self-development by participating in the decisions that shape his or her life. This goal can only be achieved through the promotion of openness, accountability and decentralization within all key institutions of society (family, workplace, political institutions.
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What is Mills idea of a more modest form of developmental democracy?
By participating in political life, citizens will develop themselves. So democracy is essentially an educational experience.

He did, however, suggest a system of plural voting, as not all political opinions are of equal value (higher education = more votes).

Mill was concerned that democracy would undermine debate, criticism and intellectual life, by encouraging people to accept the will of the majority, as the majority is not always right. He therefore supported the idea of deliberative democracy (emphasizes the need for reasoned discussion and debate).
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What is a deliberative democracy / parliamentary democracy?
A form of democracy that emphasizes the need for reasoned discussion and debate to help to formulate legitimate political outcomes
Parliamentary democracy is a form of democratic rule that operates through a populary elected deliberative assembly, which mediates between government and the people
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