Study Cards on democracies, democracy, liberal
1st: between 1828 and 1926 (involved USA, France, UK etc).
2nd: between 1943 and and 1962 (involved West Germany, Italy, Japan, India)
2. Polyarchy acknowledges that these regimes fall short of the goal of democracy.
2. Opportunities of participating in politics should be sufficiently widespread to guarantee a reliable level of popular responsiveness. (necessary: existence of regular and competitive elections, so people can control and displace rulers).
Western liberal democracies: marked not only by representative democracy and a capitalist economic organization, nut also by cultural and ideological orientation that is largely derived from Western liberalism (crucial aspect: widespread acceptance of liberal individualism).
--> leads to heightened sensitivity to individual rights, choice and competition are healthy, and tendency to regard the state as a potential threat to liberty.
- Consensual (pluralistic) democracies:
> in US: based on institutional fragmentation enshrined in the provisions of the constitution itself.
> In continental europe: consensus is underpinned by the party system, and a tendency towards bargaining and power sharing (Belgium, Austria, Switzerland)
The fall of communism ensured that 63% of states displayed some of the key features of liberal-democratic governance.
+ this process was characterized by the adoption of multiparty elections and market based economic reforms.
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