3 good questions on "Democracy - Democracy in practice - Pluralist view"

Where can the pluralist ideas be traced back to and who had the first developed statement of pluralist principles?
To the ideas of Locke and Montesquieu.

James Madison: Argued that unchecked democratic rule might just lead to majoritarianism. There are different interest groups in society and he insisted that unless each such group possessed a political voice, stability and order would be impossible.
He proposed a system of divided government based on the separation of power --> bicameralism and federalism. Rule of multiple minorities (often referred to as Madisonian democracy).
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What was Robert Dahl's theory of pluralism linked to democracy?
Dahl recognized that modern democratic systems differ from the classical democracies of Ancient Greece.
Key feature of system of pluralist democracy is that competition between parties at election time, and the ability of interest or pressure groups to articulate their views freely, establishes a reliable link between the government and the governed, and creates a channel of communication between the two .
Supporters argue that this ensures a sufficient level of accountability and popular responsiveness for it to be regarded as democratic (no single group dominates).
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Why might the relationship between pluralism and democracy not be a secure one?
- The system of rule by minority might just have been a device to prevent the majority from exercising political power.
- Danger of pluralist stagnation: occurs as organized groups and economic interests become so powerful that they create a log jam, resulting in the problem of government 'overload'.
- The unequal ownership of economic resources tends to concentrate political power in the hands of the few, and deprive the many of it.
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