Study Cards on democracy, political, system

Why is democracy legitimate?
1) People give their consent to be ruled every time they participate in the political process
2) The essence of democracy is compromise, in which living together in peace goes over force and power
3) Democracy operates with a feedback system (elections) with inputs and outputs
How does democracy promote legitimacy?
- Through consent; each time citizens participate in the political process. Democracy expands the opportunities for political participation. Political participation binds government and the people.
- Process of compromise, conciliation and negotiation --> through this, rival interests and groups find a way of living together in relative peace. Power gets dispersed, and everyone gets a voice.
- Feedback system. It brings the outputs of government into line with the inputs or pressures placed upon it. Tends towards long-term political stability.
Why is the intrinsic link between legitimacy and democracy questioned?
- can be explained by other factors:
> performance legitimacy: democratic societies tend to enjoy widespread prosperity and are effective in delivering 'the goods'
-->   generates public acceptance.
>they are often also liberal --> offer opportunities for personal freedom and social mobility.
Why is there a democratic malaise?
There is a popular disengagement with established politics and new political forces have threatened democracy
How can it be seen that there is a sense of political disenchantment in a growing number of democratic societies?
1. Trend towards popular disengagement with established political processes (decline in level of political participation).
2. New political forces have emerged to threaten conventional democratic structures. (e.g. Donald trump).
Why did populism arise?
Due to the development of neoliberalism and globalization, in which both knows winners and losers
What is liberal democracy?
A liberal democracy is a political regime in which a 'liberal' commitment to limited government is blended with a 'democratic' belief in popular rule
Key features:

1. The right to rule is gained through success in regular and competitive elections, based on universal adult suffrage
2. Constraints on government imposed by constitution, institutional checks and balances and protections for individual minority rights
3.  a vigorous civil society including a private enterprise economy, independent trade unions, and a free press
What means of legitimation are available to non-democratic regimes?
- elections (non-competitive or rigged); can give a regime a democratic facade  (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy).
- performance legitimation; deliver rising living standards, public order, improved education, health care etc.  (this happens in China; generating high and sustained levels of economic growth).
-  ideological legitimation; to uphold the leader's, military's or party's right to rule (Gadaffi proclamation of a Green revolution), or to establish broader goals and principles that invest the larger regimes with a sense of rightfulness (Marxism-Leninism).

If these strategies fail, however, all semblance of legitimation evaporates.
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