Study Cards on executive, dimension, parliament

What are the three separation of powers?
- Legislature: make law
- Executive: execute law
- Judiciaries: interpret law
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What is the difference between a parliamentary executive and a presidential executive?
Parliamentary executive: normally composed of a prime minister and a cabinet, drawn from and accountable to the parliament.

Presidential executive: only the president is elected in the executive. The president enjoys political and constitutional independence from parliament.
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What are the three dimensions of power?
- The formal dimension: the constitutional roles and responsibilities of executive officers.
- The informal dimension:  the role of personality, political skills, and experience.
- The external dimension: the political, economic, and diplomatic context of government.
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What are three distinctive styles of leadership?
- Laissez faire leadership
- Transactional leadership
- Transformational leadership
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What is laissez-faire leadership?
Main feature: The reluctance of the leader to interfere in matters outside his or her personal responsibility.
It requires that ideological goals constitute only a broadly stated strategic vision.
+ Because subordinates are given greater responsibility it can foster harmony and teamwork and it can allow leaders to concentrate on political and electoral matters. 
- It can also lead to weak coordination of government.
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How do populists offer a more new and more authentic style of politics?
1. Mannerisms and personal appearance and on what they say and do (being different, charisma).
2.  portraying themselves as political outsiders, people who can be trusted because they have not been corrupted.
3. Policy or ideological boldness
4. A willingness to court controversy and outrage their opponents.
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Populism and liberal democracy?
- Populism: anti-elitist and anti-pluralist (majority preferences prevail over minority rights).
- Populism: not necessarily anti-constitutionalist (constitutions should reflect values of the people)
- Populism promotes popular sovereignty (parliamentary sovereignty more important than checks and balances) 

Populism can have positive and negative impact. It depends on the kind of ideology that populism is combined with.
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