Political Executives and Leadership - Leaders and Leadership - Theories of leadership?

4 important questions on Political Executives and Leadership - Leaders and Leadership - Theories of leadership?

How does the natural gift perspective see leadership?

Leadership as an individual quality; charisma
Extreme version of this theory: fascism.
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How does the sociological phenomenon approach leaders?

Leaders are 'created' by particular socio-historical forces.
They do not much impose their will on the world as act as a vehicle through which historical forces are exerted.
The personalities of individual leaders are less important than the broader class interests they articulate.
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What is the theory of organizational necessity?

This theory sees leadership in largely technical terms: as a rational or bureaucratic device. Leadership is essentially an organizational necessity that arises from the need of coherence, unity and direction within any complex institution. Leadership therefore goes hand in hand with bureaucracy.
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What is the political skill theory of leadership?

Leadership as an artefact;  a political skill that can be learned and practised.
Political leadership, in this sense, is related to the art of manipulation. (can be seen most geographically in the cults of personality that were constructed to support the dictatorial leadership of figures such as Mao Zedong and Saddam Hussein).
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