Study Cards on national, nationalism, liberalism

National liberalism dates back to when?
To the French Revolution.
In mid-19th century Europe, to be a nationalist meant to be a liberal.
On what fundamental assumption is national liberalism based on?
That humankind is naturally divided into a collection of nations, each possessed of a separate identity. Nations are therefore genuine or organic communities.
Liberal nationalism links the idea of the nation with a belief in popular sovereignty.
Goal is the construction of a nation-state.
What is the principal of national self-determination?
Principle that the nation is a sovereign entity (implies both national independence and democratic rule).

National liberalism: every nation has a right to freedom and self-determination.
Enlarging political freedom and securing a peaceful and stable world order.
For what two reasons does liberalism look beyond the nation?
1. A commitment to the individual implies that liberals believe that all human beings are of equal moral worth (universalism).
--> expressed through human rights. Individual above the nation.
2.  Liberals fear that the world of sovereign nation-states may degenerate into an international 'state of nature'. National sovereignty may be used as a cloak for expansionism and conquest. So freedom must be subject to the law, not just for individuals but also nations (result: system of international law).
What are criticisms of liberal nationalism?
- They ignore the darker face of nationalism: distinguishing 'us' from a foreign 'them'. They have less of an understanding of the emotional power of nationalism (which can persuade people to fight in times of war, regardless of the justice of their nation's cause).
- The goal of liberal nationalism to construct a world of nation-states may be fundamentally misguided. The only way to do this is through ethnic cleansing (Nazis).
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