Study Cards on nationalism, cultural, national

What was Herders idea of a nation (late 18th century)?
The innate character of each national group was ultimately determined by its natural environment. Each nation has a Volksgeist (spirit of the people, reflected in their culture and language).
How is nationalism linked to modernization and the process of industrialization?
Gellner: premodern societies were structured by a network of feudal bonds and loyalties. Emerging industrial societies however, promoted social mobility, self-striving and competition, and so required a new source of cultural cohesion.
--> provided by nationalism.
(this means that it is now impossible to go back to premodern loyalties)
How is the idea of a link between nationalism and modernization challenged?
Smith: By highlighting the continuity between modern nations and premodern ethnic communities.
In his view, nations are historically embedded (rooted in common cultural heritage and language). This may long precede the achievement of statehood.
How does cultural nationalism commonly take the form of national self-affirmation?
It is a means by which a people can acquire a clearer sense of its own identity through the heightening of national pride and self-respect.
(Black nationalism, USA).
What is the difference between cultural nations and political nations? (Meinecke)
Cultural nations are characterized by a high level of ethnic homogeneity (Greeks, Germans, Irish). They are organic; they have been fashioned by natural or historical forces, and not by political forces. Powerful and historical sense of unity --> makes them stable and cohesive.
But view themselves as exclusive groups. Ethnic identity has to be inherented.

This has tended to breed insular and repressive forms of nationalism.
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