Study Cards on parties, difference, integrative

What is the difference between cadre and mass parties?
In cadre parties the group of leaders have the most influence in the party, while in mass parties the members lead
What is a distinguishing feature of cadre parties?
Their reliance on politically active elite that is capable of offering ideological leadership to the masses (usually subject to quasi-military discipline).
Memberships are expected to deliver a high level of political commitment and doctrinal discipline. Restrict outsider access.
F.e Nazi party
What are distinguishing features of mass parties and what can mass parties turn into?
Originated as social movements
Places a heavy emphasis on broadening membership and constructing a wide electoral base.
Often democratic. Focus on interests of specific group + articulate opposition in society.
F.e European socialist parties. --> designed to mobilize the working-class support, emphasis on leadership and unity + downgrading role of individual party members.

--> Can turn into catch-all parties.  Focus on general interest, downplay opposition in society. Place stress on recruitment and organization (not ideology). Movement towards political centre.

--> can turn into cartel parties. Party as an extension of the state. Focus on governing. Financial dependence on state. Ensuring own survival.
What is the difference between representative and integrative parties?
Representative parties see their primary function as being the securing of votes in elections, integrative parties seek to mobilize, educate and inspire the masses
What is a party of representation?
Primary function: securing of votes in elections. That's why they attempt to reflect, rather than shape, public opinion.
Catch-all parties.
What is a party of integration?
Adopt proactive political strategies.
Wish to mobilize, inspire and educate the masses. Not just respond to concerns.

Mass parties may also exhibit mobilizing tendencies. Until they become discouraged by electoral failure, socialist parties set out to 'win over' the electorate to a belief in the benefits of public ownership, full employment, redistribution, social welfare, etc.
What is the difference between constitutional and revolutionary parties?
Constitutional respect the rights and the rules of parties in democracy while revolutionary parties want to overthrow this existing structure
What is the difference between left and right wing parties?
Basis of ideological orientation, specifically between those parties labelled left - wing and those labelled right wing parties.
How are left-wing parties characterized?
Generally, they uphold the existing social order, and are a force for continuity.
Conservative and fascist parties.
What is the difference between mainstream and populist parties?
Mainstream parties operate between the established rules of the political game, while populist parties challenge the political establishment
What are mainstream parties?
Parties that broadly accept the constitutional status quo and so tend to operate within what can be seen as the established rule of the political game.
Tendency towards the center ground of politics.
Conventional and catch all features.
How are populist parties distinguished?
1. They challenge the authority of a political establishment deemed to be deceitful and self-serving, at the heart of which lie mainstream parties and conventional politicians.
2. They claim that the only legitimate source of political power and moral authority rests with 'the people'.

- Populist parties also reject conventional politics' obsession with the centre ground.
Right-wing populist parties, target people who have been 'left behind' by contemporary society.
- If populist parties achieve power, they differ from mainstream ones in their desire to dismantle 'politics as normal'.
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