Study Cards on political, normative, tradition
Objective = External to the observer, demonstrable; untainted by feelings, values or bias
Led to positivism (stick to methods of the natural science).
But from 1960's: criticism. behaviouralism had constrained the scope of political analysis (only looking at the observable), concepts with no empirically verifiable entities were being discarded.
2) Institutions are rather seen as unwritten conventions than formal arrangements
3) Institutions are more embedded in a particular normative and historical context
seek to uncover inequalities (feminism, marxism).
- they emphasize the role of consciousness in shaping social conduct and, therefore, the political world. Subject approaches to critical scrutiny (constructivism, poststructuralism).
-> post - structalism emerged alongside. This emphasized that all ideas and concepts are expressed in a language which itself is enmeshed in complex relations of power
Deconstruction = A close reading of philosophical or other texts with an eye to their various blind spots and/or contradictions
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