Study Cards on system, unitary, europe

What is multilevel governance?
Is a complex policy process in which authority is distributed at different levels of territorial aggregation

State sovereignty has been eroded from above and from below -> example supranational institutions such as EU (from above) and sub - national territorial units such as Catalan independence (from below)
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What is centralization and decentralization?
Centralization : The concentration of political power or government authority at the national level

Decentralization : The expansion of local autonomy through the transfer of powers and responsibilities away from national bodies
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What consolidated the importance of territory (in politics)?
1. The emergence of nationalism. As states evolved into nation-states, territory therefore became a matter not just of legal jurisdiction, but also one of identity and emotional attachment.
2. The strengthened association between national power with territorial expansion that was brought about by imperialism.

Political power is always linked to the control of territory, because it allows rulers both to extract resources and to control geographically defined populations.
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How has political authority been 'sucked up' beyond the state?
1. Through a substantial growth in transnational flows and transactions. --> state borders have become increasingly porous.
2. Relations among states have become to be characterized by growing interdependence and interconnectedness.

This has helped to reshape territorial politics and generate interest in multilevel governance.
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What are the three systems of government?
Unitary system, federal system and a confederation
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What is a confederation?
A qualified union of states in which each state retains its independence. Has proved to be unsustainable. Absence of an effective central body.
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What is the meaning of a unitary system?
The power is located in a single, national institution
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What are the two distinct institutional forms of peripheral authority exist in unitary states?
- Local government
- Devolved assemblies
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What is local government?
Government that is specific to a particular locality.
A form of government that has no share in sovereignty, and thus is subordinate to central authority (in a federal system, to state or regional authority).
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What is primary and secondary legislative power?
Primary legislative power : The ability to make law on matters which have been devolved from a central authority

Secondary legislative power : The ability to vary some laws devolved from a central authority that retains ultimate legislative control
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What is the difference between regionalism within and between countries?
Between countries means international, within is federalism and devolution
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What were the main reasons for the EU to build up?
The German problem, the need for a strong Europe and the desire to safeguard Europe from communism
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