Political ideas and ideologies - Classical ideological traditions - Socialism

17 important questions on Political ideas and ideologies - Classical ideological traditions - Socialism

Why did socialism rise up around the early nineteenth century?

As a reaction against te emergence of industrial capitalism

When did socialism take shape?

Early 19th century.
Developed as a reaction against the emergence of industrial capitalism.

What was the view of reformist socialists in the late nineteenth century?

There shouldn't be a revolution, but a gradual integration of the working class through improvement of working conditions and wages, trade unions and socialist political parties

What character did the earliest form of socialism have and what was its goal?

Fundamentalist, utopian and revolutionary character.

Its goal was to abolish a capitalist economy based on market exchange and replace it with a qualitatively different socialist society (usually constructed on the principle of common ownership).

What was the reformist socialist tradition?

From the late 19th century.
Reflected the gradual integration of the working class into capitalist society through an improvement in working conditions and wages + growth of trade unions and socialist political parties.

So what were the two camps of the socialist movement in the 20th century?

-Revolutionary socialists (communists, lenin and bolsheviks).
-Reformist socialists (practised a form of constitutional politics, embraced social democracy) --> recast socialism in terms of welfare, redistribution, and economic management.

What are the key ideas of socialism?

community, fraternity, social equality, need, social class, common ownership.

What is the meaning of dialectical materialism?

That was a form of orthodox Marxism, later to be the basis for Soviet communism

What is the scope of classical Marxism?

Historical materialism; that means that the economic base essentially determines the ideological and political superstructure

The core of classical Marxism, is a philosophy of history that Engels described as the historic materialism, what is this?

The marxist theory that olds that economic conditions ultimately structure law, politics, culture and other aspects of social existence

What is this materialist model?

Historical change is a consequence of internal contradictions within a 'mode of production' (reflected in class conflict: between bourgeoisie and proletariat).
Therefore capitalism is doomed to collapse. 
The proletariat will recognize they are being exploited and will become a revolutionary force --> leading to dictatorship of the proletariat.
But this will wither away and communist society (classless and stateless) will be left.

What was Lenins contribution to Marxism?

He developed a theory about a vanguard party; his fear was that the proletariat was not as radical as he was and that they would say better working and living conditions is enough

Where did neo-marxism develop and what did it characterize?

Western Europe.
Human beings were seen as makers of history, and not simply as puppets controlled by impersonal material forces.
Interplay between economics and politics + material circumstances of life and the capacity of human beings to shape their own destinies.

What does social democracy stand for?

Stands for a balance between the market and the state, and between the individual and the community.
Compromise between acceptance of capitalism (as the only reliable mechanism for generating wealth), and a desire to distribute wealth in accordance with moral, rather than marker, principles.

What is fundamentalist socialism?

A form of socialism that seeks to abolish capitalism and replace it with a qualitatively different kind of society

What is the chief characteristic of modern social democratic thought?

Concern for the underdog, the weak and the vulnerable in society.
Humanize capitalism through state intervention.

What is new social democracy referring to?

The old-style social democracy mixed with the electorally attractive aspects of neoliberalism; top-down state-intervention is dead, 'helping others to help themselves.'

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